Asthma Specialist Doctor in Jaipur: In 2019, asthma affected an estimated 262 million people and killed 4,55,000 people. Asthma symptoms can be controlled with inhaled medication, allowing patients with asthma to live a normal, active life. The majority of asthma deaths occur in low- and lower-middle-income countries, where underdiagnosis and undertreatment are frequent.

Asthma is a serious noncommunicable disease (NCD) that affects both children and adults and is the most common chronic ailment in children. Asthma symptoms are caused by inflammation and narrowing of the tiny airways in the lungs, which can include any combination of coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness.

WHO is committed to improving asthma diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring to lower the global burden of NCDs and move closer to universal health coverage. Dr. Sheetu Singh has also expanded her expertise in Asthma. She is a well-known Asthma specialist doctor in Jaipur, Rajasthan. She is successful in building a reputable clientele base.

Causes of Asthma

Several factors have been linked to an increased chance of having asthma while identifying a single, direct cause is typically challenging.

  • Those who have other allergy disorders, such as eczema or rhinitis, are more susceptible to developing asthma
  • Asthma is more common in families when other members have asthma, particularly close relatives such as a parent or sibling
  • Early childhood experiences affect the developing lungs and can increase the risk of asthma. They include low birth weight, preterm, tobacco smoking, and other types of air pollution, as well as viral respiratory infections.
  • Asthma prevalence rises with urbanization, most likely due to a combination of lifestyle variables
  • Environmental allergens and irritants such as indoor and outdoor air pollution, house dust mites, molds, and occupational contact with chemicals, fumes, or dust are also known to raise the risk of asthma
  • Children and adults who are overweight or obese are at a higher risk of having asthma

Check the effects of dust, and aerosol on patients with asthma.

Asthma Symptoms by Asthma Expert of Jaipur

Asthma symptoms fluctuate from person to person. You may experience rare asthma episodes, symptoms only at certain times (for example, when exercising), or symptoms all of the time. Asthma symptoms and indicators include:

  • Pain or chest tightness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Wheezing when exhaling is a common symptom of asthma in youngsters
  • Coughing or wheezing attacks are exacerbated by a respiratory illness, such as the common cold or the flu
  • Sleeping issues are brought on by shortness of breath, coughing, or wheezing

Asthma symptoms for some people worsen in the following scenarios.

  • Exercise-induced asthma may be exacerbated if the air is cold and dry
  • Occupational asthma, irritants in the workplace such as chemical fumes, gases, or dust
  • Allergy-induced asthma is aggravated by airborne things such as pollen, mold spores, cockroach feces, or skin and dry saliva particles shed by dogs (pet dander).
Causes, Symptoms and Treatment of Asthma

Diagnosis of Asthma

Here’s a brief overview of the diagnosis of asthma disease:

  • Physical examination by a healthcare provider
  • Lung function tests, such as spirometry, measure how much air you can exhale and how quickly you can do it
  • Allergy testing to identify possible triggers
  • Imaging tests, such as chest X-rays or CT scans, to rule out other conditions
  • Keeping track of symptoms with a peak flow meter or symptom diary

Treatment by Asthma Specialist

Here’s a brief overview of the treatment of asthma disease:

  • Inhalers, including quick-relief (bronchodilators) and long-term control medications (steroids)
  • Allergy medications, such as antihistamines or nasal sprays
  • Immunotherapy (allergy shots) for those with allergies as a trigger
  • Lifestyle changes, such as avoiding triggers like smoke, dust, or pet dander
  • Emergency treatment, such as oxygen therapy or nebulizers, for severe symptoms or attacks.

It’s important to work with a healthcare provider to create an individualized asthma management plan that fits your specific needs and symptoms.

When to See An Asthma Specialist Doctor?

Severe asthma attacks can be deadly. See the best asthma specialist doctor, Dr. Sheetu Singh about what to do if your signs and symptoms worsen- and when you require immediate medical attention. Asthma emergency symptoms include:

  • The quick deterioration of shortness of breath or wheezing
  • Shortness of breath when conducting little physical activity
  • Even after utilizing a pain reliever inhaler, there was no improvement

You can also consult with the best asthma specialist doctor in Jaipur on the emergency line at +91-8696666380.


World Hemophilia Day is celebrated on 17th April every year, seeking to improve awareness of hemophilia and other inherited bleeding disorders. The day is celebrated in honor of Frank Schnabel, founder of the World Federation of Haemophilia (WFH). The meta-analysis revealed that the inherited bleeding disorder affects over 1,125,000 men worldwide, with 418,000 suffering from a severe form of the disease that often goes undiagnosed. This represents a significant increase from the previous estimate of 400,000 individuals globally with the disorder.

Haemophilia is a medical disorder, mainly inherited, in which the capacity of blood to clot is substantially decreased so that even a little injury can produce major bleeding. Haemophilia is caused by a mutation or change, in one of the genes, that provides instructions for manufacturing the clotting factor proteins needed to generate a blood clot.

What is The World Federation of Haemophilia (WFH)?

The World Federation of Hemophilia (WFH) is an international non-profit organization that is dedicated to improving the lives of people with hemophilia and other inherited bleeding disorders. Some key facts about the WFH include:

  • The WFH was founded in 1963 and is based in Montreal, Canada.
  • The organization has a global network of member organizations in more than 140 countries.
  • The WFH works to improve diagnosis, treatment, and care for people with hemophilia and other bleeding disorders through a range of programs and initiatives.
  • The WFH advocates for access to safe and effective treatment for all people with bleeding disorders, regardless of where they live or their ability to pay.
  • The WFH is committed to advancing research and education in the field of bleeding disorders to improve outcomes for patients.
  • The WFH organizes World Hemophilia Day, which is celebrated annually on April 17 to raise awareness about bleeding disorders and the challenges faced by people living with them.
  • The mission of WFH is to improve and sustain care for people with inherited bleeding disorders worldwide.

World Hemophilia Day Theme

This year The International theme is “Access for All: Prevention of Bleeds as the global standard of Care”. The purpose is to increase access to treatment and care with an emphasis on better management and prevention of bleeds for all people with bleeding disorders.

World Hemophilia Day Theme 2023
World Hemophilia Day Theme 2023

What is Hemophilia?

Hemophilia is a genetic disorder that affects the body’s ability to clot blood properly. People with hemophilia have low levels of certain clotting factors, which are proteins in the blood that help control bleeding. This means that they may bleed for a longer time than others after an injury, or they may bleed internally without any obvious injury.

Due to the genetic mechanisms responsible for determining the sex of a child, hemophilia is more prevalent among males than females. It is a quite rare disease, every 1 in 10,000 people is born with it.

Types of Hemophilia

There are two main types of hemophilia:

1. Hemophilia A: Hemophilia A is the most common form and is caused by a deficiency of clotting factor VIII.

2. Hemophilia B: Hemophilia B, also known as Christmas disease, is caused by a deficiency of clotting factor IX.

Both types are inherited, meaning they are passed down from parent to child through their genes.

Symptoms | World Hemophilia Day

Hemophilia is typically diagnosed in childhood, and symptoms can range from mild to severe depending on the level of clotting factor present in the blood. Here are several symptoms of hemophilia, which have been described below:

  • There is bleeding into the joints and muscles
  • Big bruises or nosebleeds
  • Spontaneous bleeding (sudden bleeding inside the body for no clear reason)
  • Prolonged bleeding after getting a cut, removing a tooth, or having surgery
  • The severity of hemophilia symptoms can vary depending on the type of hemophilia and the individual’s clotting factor levels.
  • People with severe hemophilia may experience frequent and severe bleeding episodes, while those with mild hemophilia may only experience bleeding symptoms after surgery or significant injury.
  • Other symptoms of hemophilia may include swelling, pain, stiffness, and limited range of motion in the affected joints.
Hemophilia Symptoms - Dr. Sheetu Singh
Hemophilia Symptoms – Dr. Sheetu Singh


With proper treatment and management, people with hemophilia can live relatively normal and healthy lives. Here are some treatments for Hemophilia which have been given below:

  • Replacement theory is the primary treatment for hemophilia. Treatment for hemophilia typically involves replacing the clotting factors that are missing or not working properly in the blood.
  • Concentrates of clotting factor VIII (for Haemophilia A) or clotting factor IX (for Haemophilia B) are slowly dripped or injected into a vein. These infusions help to replace the clotting factor, that is low or missing.
  • In addition to clotting factor replacement therapy, people with hemophilia may also need to take medications to prevent bleeding or to manage pain.
  • Other treatments for hemophilia may include physical therapy, which can help improve joint mobility and prevent joint damage.
  • It is important for people with hemophilia to work closely with their healthcare providers to develop a comprehensive treatment plan that meets their individual needs.

Indian Scenario of Haemophilia

  • The World Federation of Hemophilia’s 2017 Annual Global Survey reported that there were over 196,000 people living with hemophilia worldwide in that year.
  • India had the highest number of cases among country-wise data, with nearly 19,000 reported cases.
  • It is estimated that around 80% of cases are unreported, indicating that the actual number of people with hemophilia may be close to 200,000.
Registered Cases of Hemophilia - World Hemophilia Day
Registered Cases of Hemophilia – World Hemophilia Day 7 April 2023


Registered Cases 

India – 18,966

US – 30,000-33,000

China – 14,390

Brazil – 12,432

France – 7,524

World – 1,125,000



A study by The American Journal of Managed Care (AJMC) found that, per 100,000 males, there are:

  • 17.1 cases for all severities of hemophilia A
  • 6.0 cases of severe hemophilia A
  • 3.8 cases for all severities of hemophilia B
  • 1.1 cases for severe hemophilia B

Per 100,000 males, the prevalence at birth is:

  • 24.6 cases for all severities of hemophilia A
  • 9.5 cases of severe hemophilia A
  • 5.0 cases for all severities of hemophilia B
  • 1.5 cases of severe hemophilia B

People with hemophilia who are born in upper-middle-income countries will have a 64% reduction in their chances of living a normal lifespan with good quality of life, while those born in middle-income countries will have a 77% reduction. In low-income countries, the reduction can be as high as 93%.

How to Celebrate World Hemophilia Day

Numerous events are organized every year on World Hemophilia Day, filled with educational presentations and other events that promote awareness of the disease and those who suffer from it. If you’re unable to attend, you could consider sending a donation to the World Federation of Hemophilia to assist support their fight against this crippling disorder, especially in the poorest parts of the world.

Another thing you could do is find the World Federation of Hemophilia’s Facebook page and proceed to share some of the many infographics they post in order to help your Facebook friends become more informed as well.

Event of World Hemophilia Day

World Hemophilia Day aids in the recruitment of volunteers for the world federation of Hemophilia as well as the fundraising of funds for patients who cannot afford hemophilia treatment. Every year on World Hemophilia Day, a variety of activities, including lectures and other activities, are planned to raise awareness of the condition and those affected by it.
By bringing hemophilia and other hereditary bleeding diseases to the attention of policymakers, we can improve long-term and equitable access to care and treatment. The Covid-19 epidemic and the situation in Ukraine continue to touch the globe, but one thing hasn’t changed: we are still in this together and will always be more potent as a community in our shared purpose of “treatment for all”.


1. What is the significance of World Hemophilia Day?

Every year on April 17th, World Hemophilia Day is celebrated. It is celebrated all over the world as a day of Awareness for Hemophilia (sometimes written as haemophilia) and linked with bleeding disorders, as well as the World Federation of Hemophilia founder Frank Schnabel’s birthday.

2. Who does hemophilia affect the most?

Both two major forms of hemophilia occur more commonly in males than in females. The most common type of condition is Hemophilia A; 1 in 4,000 to 1 in 5,000 males all over the world are born with this disorder. Hemophilia B occurs in approx 1 in 20,000 newborn males all over the world.

3. How do we celebrate World Hemophilia Day?

To show your support for World Hemophilia Day and those affected by bleeding disorders, light a red lamp in your home, office, or local landmark. This simple gesture can help raise awareness about the challenges faced by individuals with bleeding disorders.

4. Why male are more affected by hemophilia?

In males, there is only one copy of most genes on the X chromosome, while females have two copies. This makes males more susceptible to X-linked genetic disorders such as hemophilia. Hemophilia is caused by a mutation in either the factor VIII or factor IX gene on the X chromosome. If a male inherits an affected X chromosome with a mutation in either of these genes, he will develop the disease.

5. What is unique about hemophilia?

Hemophilia is a genetic blood disorder that affects clotting and leads to slow or stop clotting, resulting in prolonged bleeding. This condition arises when there is a deficiency in the normal amount of clotting factors that aid in blood coagulation. Healthcare providers manage hemophilia by replenishing the deficient clotting factors to restore the blood’s ability to clot effectively.

Video: World Hemophilia Day


Types of Allergy: Allergies develop when your immune system reacts to foreign material- such as pollen, bee venom, or pet dander- or a food that most people do not react to. Antibodies are chemicals created by your immune system.
When you have allergies, your immune system develops antibodies that identify a particular allergen as deadly, even if it is not. When you come into contact with an allergen, your immune system’s reaction may cause inflammation of your skin, sinuses, airways, or digestive tract. Read the full article to know more about allergy types.

Allergies Types  by Immunologist/Allergist 

An allergy occurs when your immune system perceives a certain substance as dangerous. It responds by eliciting an allergic reaction. Allergens are chemicals that cause allergic reactions in people.
Allergies come in a variety of forms. Some allergies are seasonal, while others occur throughout the year. Certain allergies might last a lifetime. It is vital to collaborate with your doctor to build an energy management plan. Here are some most common types of allergies given below:

Types of Allergy - Dr. Sheetu Singh
Types of Allergy – Dr. Sheetu Singh

1. Drug allergy

Real medication allergies affect just a small percentage of the population. Most drug reactions are not allergic, but rather a side effects of the medication’s qualities. The patient’s history and symptoms are frequently used to make a diagnosis of the cause of the medication reaction. Skin testing for medication is sometimes performed.

2. Food allergy

Food allergies are caused by your immune system responding to particular foods. Although it is unclear why this occurs, certain foods are more likely to induce an allergic reaction in some persons. One of the most prevalent allergenic foods is Cow’s milk.

3. Insect allergy

The most frequent stinging insects that trigger an allergic reaction include bees, wasps, hornets, yellow jackets, and fire ants. Insects that do not sting can potentially trigger allergic responses. The most frequent are cockroaches and the insect-like dust mite. Allergies to these two insects may be the most common cause of allergy and asthma year-round.

4. Latex allergy

An allergic reaction to natural rubber latex is known as a latex allergy. Natural rubber latex gloves, balloons, condoms, and other natural rubber objects contain latex. A latex allergy can be dangerous to one’s health.

5. Mold allergy

Fungi are mold and mildew. Mold allergies can occur all year since fungi thrive in so many areas, both indoors and outdoors. Coughing, itchy eyes, and other unpleasant symptoms can be caused by mold allergies. Mold allergy medication can help keep allergic reactions under control.

6. Pet allergy

Allergies to furry pets are frequent. It is critical to understand that there is no allergy-free (hypoallergenic) breed of dog or cat. An allergic reaction to proteins contained in an animal’s skin cells, saliva, or urine is known as a pet allergy.

7. Pollen allergy

Pollen is one of the most prevalent seasonal allergy triggers. Many people refer to pollen allergy as “hay fever.” but professionals call it “seasonal allergic rhinitis.”
It happens when allergens, such as pollen, enter your body and your immune system incorrectly recognizes them as a threat. If you have allergic rhinitis, your body reacts to the allergen by releasing chemicals that produce nasal symptoms.

Dr. Sheetu Singh is the best allergist/immunologist in Jaipur. Consult with her to know more about the types of allergy and how can we treat them.

Also, read about Nose Allergies(Hay Fever).


Doctors warn that because the H3N2 virus is attacking kids and the elderly, it is essential to re-enforce Covid guidelines like wearing masks, social separation, and other pandemic-era rules. Many youngsters and the elderly get infected with this virus and recover in 10 to 12 days. According to health professionals, 7% of youngsters are admitted to ICUs. The virus is classified as a flu virus, but its effect is similar to a corona, in that it causes fever and damage to the lungs. H3N2 is a strain of the common flu, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). According to WHO, seasonal influenza is an acute respiratory infection caused by influenza viruses that circulate around the world. They are divided into several subtypes. Humans are now infected with influenza viruses of Subtypes A (H1N1) and A (H3N2).

What Is The H3N2 virus?

Rajasthan Hospital’s Sheetu Singh stated: “we discharged one patient (38 years old) after a month since both of her lungs had become white due to a severe illness. She was placed on a respirator for ten days. She arrived with pneumonia, fever, and a cough.”

What Are The Signs And Symptoms

According to WHO, common symptoms of seasonal influenza include a rapid fever, a cough (typically dry), a headache, muscle, and joint discomfort, a sore throat, and a runny nose. The cough can persist for two weeks or more, depending on the severity. Most people recover from fever and other symptoms without the need for medical attention within a week. Those with comorbidities, on the other hand, can suffer from severe sickness or even death from influenza.

How Does It Spread?

Seasonal influenza, according to the WHO, spreads quickly. Crowds increase the likelihood of the spread. The virus spreads when an infected person sneezes or coughs. Droplets containing viruses that come out of the nose or mouth are distributed into the air and can affect people up to a meter distant as well as those in close proximity.

The H3N2 virus spreads from infected pigs to people via infectious droplets spat by the pig while coughing or sneezing. In the same way, this virus spreads through humans.

How Can It Be Prevented?

Vaccination is the most effective strategy to stop the spread. Vaccines that are both reliable and efficacious have been in use for more than six decades. Also, people who are not in the high-risk group are recommended to limit their interactions with others. Face masks and frequent hand washing are recommended to avoid spread. Those who are at high risk should seek emergency medical attention. It is recommended to keep a close eye on the patient’s health and to seek medical guidance if the patient’s condition worsens. Most importantly, medical professionals warn against self-medication.

Advice From Medical Experts

  • Hand washing and drying should be done on a regular basis.
  • Covering one’s nose and mouth when coughing or sneezing is an example of good respiratory hygiene.
  • Those who are unwell or have flu symptoms should be isolated as soon as possible.
  • Avoid contact with infected people.
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose, or mouth.


Asthma is an episodic disease with sickness and well-being phases. Many triggers produce the illness episodes. Pollution, smoking occupational sensitizers, illnesses, and indoor and outdoor allergens have all been associated with asthma exacerbations. Several factors have been suspected of causing asthma exacerbations, although the precise process is unknown. Effect of Dust Aerosol in patients with asthma is an important type of aerosol in the atmosphere; it affects the climate system, as well as the marine and terrestrial ecosystem.

Effect Of Dust Aerosol on Patients With Asthma

The tubes of the lungs begin to shrink and bulge with this illness, causing shortness of breath, coughing, and wheezing. Symptoms usually emerge within minutes of being exposed to the chemical. These symptoms are extremely common and one of the primary causes of asthma. Sandstorms frequently have negative health impacts, particularly on asthma patients. The goal of our study was to investigate the mechanism of sandstorm-induced asthmatic aggravation by exposing people to dust aerosol in an environmentally controlled chamber. Twenty individuals affected by dust aerosol in patients with asthma who had a stable illness and an FEV1 greater than 70% of expected volunteered to take part in this randomized single-blind placebo-controlled crossover study.

Causes Of Aerosol Induced Asthma

Aerosols can be found in household cleaners. These are particles of solid and liquid matter in a gas. When these particles are inhaled, the body responds by producing leukotrienes and histamines. These substances are released, pulmonary inflammation and mucus formation ensue.
When asthma triggers occur, this is the reaction. For example, Hairdressers and cleaners are frequently exposed to aerosols.

  1. Dust mites.
  2. Tobacco smoke.
  3. Mold.
  4. Outdoor air pollution.
  5. Cleaning and disinfection.
  6. Pests (mice, cockroaches)

Symptoms Of Aerosol Induced Asthma

Asthmatics have delicate airways that easily become irritated. Asthma symptoms such as wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing can be triggered by a variety of factors. Effect of dust aerosol on patients with Asthma is controlled with medication administered through inhalers (for example the ventolin evohaler or salamol easy- breathed).

How Do Aerosols Trigger Asthma?

Aerosol sprays are an irritant that can cause inflammation of your airways and lungs. This occurs when the sprays penetrate the air around you, especially since deodorant and hairspray are so close to your mouth and nose. The aerosols also contain tiny particles that might cause airway irritation. This is more likely to cause asthma in poorly ventilated rooms with several asthma triggers.

Treatment Of Aerosol Induced Asthma

The best strategy to manage irritant-induced asthma is to avoid the source of the irritant, and if that is not possible, to utilize bronchodilators and prescription drugs. Allergy testing is frequently recommended to determine which allergens to avoid. Symptoms will improve when triggers are avoided and the patient takes the appropriate medication consistently. If limiting your exposure is just not an option, make careful to use bottled sprays in well-ventilated locations or outdoors. You should also leave the area and return only when the odors have dissipated. Follow the guidelines of inhalers nebulizers and on the bottle and use a mask designed specifically for the product you’re using. Instead of using a spray can look into pump spray options.

Dr. Sheetu Singh is the best Asthma Specialist Doctor in Jaipur, Consult with her to know more about it.


Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is an uncommon immune system condition that affects your lungs. Bird fancier’s lung, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, farmer’s lung, hot tub lung, and humidifier lung are all names for this disease. HP occurs in some people after they breathe in certain substances in the environment, such as the skin cells shed by animals with fur or mold. These substances activate the immune system and cause short-or long-term lung inflammation. This inflammation prevents the lungs from working properly and can make breathing difficult. 

What is Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

Some types of hypersensitivity pneumonitis can be treated by avoiding the trigger or by taking medications, without treatment, HP can result in permanent lung damage. HP is a type of allergy that causes inflammation in your lung’s small air sacs (alveoli). Your symptoms may be acute and disappear quickly, or they may develop over time and become chronic. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis is an interstitial lung disease. It can eventually cause lung scarring.

Causes of hypersensitivity pneumonitis 

HP is caused by inhaling substances(allergens) that provoke an immunological reaction in your lungs. This can harm your lungs and worsen your symptoms over time. Around 300 different causes of HP have been identified, including: 

  1. Bacteria.
  2. Certain chemicals and metals.
  3. Molds and fungi.
  4. Animal and plant proteins. 
  5. Humidifiers, air conditioners, and ventilation systems.
  6. Food contamination or factory products.
  7. Bird dropping, feathers, and animal furs.
  8. Contaminated fluids from metalwork.
  9. Hay or gain for feeding animals.
  10. Hardwood dust.
  11. Hot tubs.

Symptoms of hypersensitivity pneumonitis 

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis symptoms can be transient or persistent. Acute symptoms appear within a few hours of being exposed to an allergen and might linger for several hours or days. Chronic symptoms might emerge gradually and worsen with time. 

Symptoms of acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis 

  1. Shortness of breath(dyspnea)
  2. Chest tightness.
  3. Dry cough.
  4. Muscle aches.
  5. Fever.
  6. Fatigue.
  7. chills.

Symptoms of chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis

  • Cough.
  • Shortness of breath, particularly after effort or activity.
  • Weight loss.
  • Fatigue.
  • Finger or toe clubbing.

Treatment of hypersensitivity pneumonitis 

Treatment for HP can help avoid lung scarring and alleviate your symptoms. Avoiding the chemical, bacterium, or other things that caused your ailment is frequently the first step in treatment. you may not always know what is causing it. 

 You may also require one or more of the therapies listed below:

  • Medicines: to soothe your immune system or relax the muscles in your airways to make it easier to breathe.
  • Pulmonary rehabilitation: to improve your quality of life by learning how to breathe more easily.
  • Oxygen therapy: if you have low oxygen levels in your body.
  • Lung transplant: if your lungs are severely injured and no other therapeutic options are available to you. 

If HP is not treat properly, it can result in pulmonary hypertension, permanent lung damage, or heart failure. 

How can you manage it at home?

The steps listed below can assist you in managing your condition:

  • Get regular medical care.
  • Engage in frequent physical activity.
  • Obtain routine vaccinations.
  • Quit smoking. 

Dr. Sheetu Singh, director OF ILD & pulmonary rehab center and nationally renowned pulmonologist, is an expert in hypersensitivity pneumonitis-related disorders. Consult with her to know more about this disease, and if you feel any kind of symptoms regarding this. 


When you feel an itchy, painful, and irritating feeling in the back of your throat, and troubles you during swallowing, it is most likely a acute sore throat. It is medically referred to as pharyngitis. There are many reasons responsible for this throat problem, the most common being viral infections such as colds or flu. Many bacterial agents can also cause sore causes and require medical attention, along with antibiotics for complete recovery and prevent further complications. 

Acute sore throat: Symptoms, causes and treatment

Major symptoms of sore throat include the following:

– Itchy sensation in the throat 

– Painful swallowing

– Pain while talking 

– Hoarse voice 

– Inflammation in tonsils 

Symptoms might be accompanied by other symptoms, which are a result of infections caused by certain infectious agents. 

  • Fever 
  • Coughing 
  • Running nose 
  • Sneezing 

The severity of the symptoms depends on the type and cause of the infection. However, acute sore throat if caused by any of the pathogenic agents will show the above-mentioned indications. Difficult swallowing or drooling might also be seen in children which is because of their inability to swallow as it is painful. Adults experience a few more indications of the problem that might include: 

  1. Swelling around the neck 
  2. High and persistent fever
  3. Blood in the mucus
  4. Difficulty in opening your mouth


Major possible causes of acute sore throat include viral and bacterial infections. People with weakened immune systems, catch hold of these viral and bacterial diseases more often than others. Recurring infections can cause recurring pharyngitis. Viral diseases that can cause core throat include Influenza, pneumonia, the common cold, COVID-19 infection, measles etc. Streptococcus infections are the major cause of sore throat in the bacterial category. 

Other than bacterial or viral diseases, many factors can cause this problem, some of them are listed below: 

– Allergy

People who are allergic to a certain substance are often triggered by the allergens and begin to experience this problem when the allergic responses begin to occur. Allergens make the throat itchy and cause a feeling of discomfort because of inflammation in the throat. This might last for a few days. 

– Throat muscle strain

This is produced because of loud talking or yelling or continuous talking for long hours such as in the case of teachers. Continuous vocal activity can strain the throat muscles and make the throat sore. 

– Dry air 

 As in the case of longer uses of AC nowadays, the air indoors becomes much dry and can irritate the cells of our throat when inhaled. This causes inflammation or itchiness because the throat is rough. 

– Gastroesophageal reflux

 when the acid from your stomach flows backwards into your oesophagus it is called GERD, this can cause a burning and painful sensation in the throat. 


The principle of treatment depends upon the identification of the cause of the same. In cases of Gastroesophageal reflux, antacids are recommended. However, for any bacterial infection, antibiotics are suggested to help eliminate the disease and hence its symptoms. In cases of allergies, anti-allergic medication might be of great help. There are certain remedies advised that can help you ease out the pain and discomfort caused by a sore throat. 

Drinking warm liquids is the best method to ease the cells of the throat and prevent scratchiness. 

Avoid yelling or loud talking or prolonged talking to relax your throat muscles and put them at rest for proper and quick healing. 

Avoid using ACs to control the dryness of your room. Moise air helps our throat to get rid of dryness. Adding a humidifier or vaporizer can be of extra help. 

Reduce outdoor activity for some time to avoid coming in contact with pollutants or allergens. 


Community-acquired Pneumonia or CAP is also pneumonia, but is caused outside the hospital, and is acquired outdoors in the public. So, People who have not been to any healthcare facility recently can acquire pneumonia from other sources outside the hospital premises. Pneumonia is an infection caused in the lungs and affects normal breathing, leading to difficulties in usual respiratory health. This infection inflames the air sacs of our lungs. The lungs are the site of the exchange of gases, intake of oxygen and removal of carbon dioxide. The inflamed air sacs find it difficult to perform their routine function. The inflammation is accompanied by the deposition of fluids inside the air sacs of the lungs.  

What Is Community Acquired Pneumonia – Dr Sheetu Singh

Bacterial pathogens are present in the air around us, being microorganisms that can easily thrive in the environment around us. Different bacteria can cause pneumonia in adults, that includes, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. Influenza viruses, Adenoviruses and Coronaviruses can also induce pneumonia in people. Pneumonia caused by the pathogens can be fatal and serious. These pathogens are released in the air during coughing or sneezing in droplets and can be inhaled by a healthy person. So, the droplets contain the causative organism and can infect the person inhaling it, making the disease contagious. 

Symptoms of CAP: 

Typical symptoms of community-acquired pneumonia include: 

  • Fever 
  • Coughing
  • Chest congestion and pain
  • Dyspnea 
  • Nausea 
  • Diarrhea

Atypical symptoms can vary from person to person and is different in adults and children too. 

Adults experience symptoms such as nails and lips turning blue because of lack of oxygen in the blood, restlessness, sound while breathing, and excessively thick and sticky mucus. 


Fatality is the biggest threat in respiratory diseases, as the lungs are the primary site for controlling breathing patterns. If there is not enough oxygen being supplied to the body, there are chances of failure of the organs and their activities. A pulmonologist can advise, based on the symptoms, whether or not the disease falls in the category. Yet, diagnostic tests are required for a confirmed prognosis. 

The tests include the following methods:

  • Chest X-Ray 
  • CT scan 
  • Blood tests for a primary check-up. 
  • Blood pressure and oxygen levels. 
  • Blood culture for etiology 
  • Sputum sampling for exact pathogenic identification.
  • COVID-19 tests 

Who is at risk? 

Certain people are more at risk than others. Some of the conditions are as follows:

  1. People with weak immunities are more prone to the disease as their immune systems fail to eliminate the causative organism. 
  2. Smokers have a higher chance of getting infections in their lungs. 
  3. COPDs also increase the chances. 
  4. Problems such as kidney failure. 


Experts, after a confirmed diagnosis of the disease, can advise a person to be put on antibiotics. These anti-bacterial agents can help to eliminate the pathogen if at all it is caused by a bacterium. The type of antibiotic depends upon the cause of the disease. Then, medication is accompanied by certain therapies or even surgery if needed. If the lungs are severely damaged because of the infection, surgeries might be a help. 

Oral medication takes a long time to completely cure the disease, but the effects can be seen within a few days after the start of the medication. 

People with a high risk of fatality are also put on a ventilator for extra support. 


There are certain precautionary measures that we need to follow, especially if we are infected. 

  • Avoid crowded places to avoid catching the microbes causing the infections and the ones suffering from it might not spread it to others. 
  • Do not avoid medication to eliminate the infection from our lungs. 
  • Wear masks to prevent it from spreading. 
  • Take warm liquids to keep our throat healed and moist. 
  • Complete the course of antibiotics. 
  • Take a balanced diet to improve your immunity. 


Cancer is any abnormal growth of cellular mass due to the deposition of damaged cells dividing uncontrollably. It can be can spread from one part of the body to the other part. Cell division is a normal process of our body to replace damaged or worn-out cells, new cells replace the old cells during normal cell division, as every cell of our body has a life span of its own. Lung cancer process of cell division is highly regulated by different proteins and cell signalling mechanisms. If such a well-regulated mechanism fails to control normal cell cycle, and division, lumps of a cell are formed at different sites where the cell division disturbances occur. 

Lung Cancer: Causes and Stages 

In humans, lung cancer develops in the lungs. A lung cancer occurs when abnormal divisions of cells take place in the lungs. It can either occur in the bronchi or the alveoli. As obvious from the name itself, the lungs are the organs that control breathing, if the alveoli or bronchi are affected by the tumour formation, there will be difficulty in breathing along with other symptoms, that might or might not resemble other lung disorders. 


Lung cancer formation occurs when the division rate is more than the required rate of cell division by the body. Normal cells have programmed cell death, and prevent unnecessary cell division, but cancerous cells fail to “switch off.” The cell division can be irregular and continuous. The lump of cells can become a tumour if there is an accumulation of cells in large numbers. This uncontrolled cell division can be unpredictable but many factors can be associated with this irregular growth of cells, which might include inhalation of harmful substances such as asbestos, arsenic or nickel etc., which can cause mutation in the normal cells. 

The major cause of cancer in the lungs is smoking. Passive smoking and active smoking both cause the formation of an irregular mass of cells that is not control by the body’s natural mechanism to eliminate abnormal cells. This tissue can then develop into a tumour. Tumours can either be restricted to their site or origin or can spread through body fluids to other parts of the body as well. 


It is generally possible to categorize lung cancers into two broad categories:

Small cell lung cancer- This type of lung cancer occurs in about 15-20% of total people, that too in heavy smokers. It is a less common form of lung cancer but is more aggressive than NSCLC. Because of its aggressive nature, cancer may be more difficult to cure or less responsive to treatments. 

Non-small cell lung cancer- NSCLC makes up a total of 80-85% of total lung cancer cases and is the most common type of lung cancer. This type of cancer includes adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and large cell carcinoma. NSCLC responds to the therapies used as a part of cancer treatment. 


Like any other cancer, lung cancer also develops and spreads in stages, if remains undiagnosed and untreated. The progression of stages of lung cancer includes stages from zero to four. 

Initially, stage 0 occurs in the bronchi.

Stage I is inside the lung and the tumour has not outgrown the lungs. 

Stage II cancer is larger than stage I and has started spreading out to the lymph nodes which are inside the lungs. 

Stages III and IV are advancements in the tumours, as stage III includes tumour growth even to the lymph nodes outside the lungs and stage IV includes cancer formation in the other lung too. 

Such progression of cancer decides the severity of cancer and hence the life of a person. Early diagnosis can lead to successful treatment with both therapy and medicine. In cases of fast tumour growth, it crosses the stage beyond which the treatment becomes impossible.


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease or COPD is a broad term for diseases such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Just like any other respiratory disease, these diseases also cause difficulty in breathing thus affecting our routine lives. If conditions remain undiagnosed and untreated, they can lead to permanent and irreversible lung damage.  COPD is a progressive condition of the respiratory tract showing mild symptoms initially that intensify with time. The correct diagnosis followed by the required precise treatment can slow down and eventually cure it. 

What Is COPD – Causes, Symptoms, Treatment – Dr. Sheetu Singh

Although many of the symptoms resemble, there is a difference between COPD and asthma. COPD is a chronic condition that is mostly caused by smoking. Asthma, however, is also a chronic disease but is triggered by a variety of allergens. It is certainly possible, a person might have both conditions and hence would require treatment for both. 

Causes of COPD: 

The major cause of COPD is smoking tobacco which accounts for 90% of the diagnosed cases but there are other possible causes too. 

– Air pollutants that can damage our airways. 

– Passive smoking i.e., inhaling the smoke released by the smoker. 

– Absence of alpha-1 antitrypsin which is an enzyme that protects our lungs from the effects of inflammation. Lack of this enzyme can lead to emphysema. This makes it a genetic disorder too but is uncommon. 

– Pollutants present at the workplace that include smoke, dust, fumes, etc. 


Symptoms of COPD are not noticeable unless there is remarkable lung damage affecting our breathing patterns and routine lives. The condition progressively worsens if remains unnoticed for a longer period. 

The symptoms include any of the following: 

– Difficulty in breathing, especially during any physical activity

– Wheezing sound (such as observed in asthma) 

– Chest congestion 

– Fatigue

– Production of mucus increases

– In severe cases, the color of mucus changes with time, also there is a specific odor produced

– Presence of blood in sputum

– Loss of weight in later stages

– Increased and frequent respiratory infections

– Fever 

– Headaches 

Symptoms can worsen if a person continues to smoke or is exposed to smoke regularly. 

If you observe any of the above-mentioned symptoms, especially if they are regular or there is the presence of blood in the sputum, you must immediately consult your health expert. A pulmonologist can help you diagnose the exact condition and prescribe the medication needed for immediate relief as well as a prolonged cure. Dr. Sheetu Singh is a known pulmonologist who has hands-on experience in curing such long-lasting ailments. Book an appointment if you observe any of such symptoms, or your lips and nails turning blue lately for expert advice. 


Treatment for COPD can be a blend of medication, therapy, and lifestyle changes. If the condition is severe, surgeries can be recommended, especially in cases of severe lung damage.  

Medication includes the use of bronchodilators and corticosteroids. Bronchodilators are taken usually by an inhaler or a nebulizer and help to reduce the tightness of the muscle present around our airways. Corticosteroids can help to lower the production of mucus and can reduce inflammation. 

A person who has developed this condition is also advised to make changes in their lifestyle that includes: 

– Balanced diet to provide nutrition to the body

– Regular physical activity

– Avoid smoking, both active and passive. 

– Taking regular medication as prescribed. 

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