Managing Winter Asthma and Allergies: Winters are harsh on those, who are struggling with asthma and prone to various allergies. Such people struggle a lot during cold weather due to their narrow respiratory airways and other complications. But now you don’t worry. We understand this is going to be tough on you, but this blog will help you a bit and make your life in winters a bit easier. 

Here in the details mentioned below, we will explain to the readers that “How can they manage asthma and allergies during the winter season?” So let’s start catching up with the very much required information.
Caution: Before you get into the info, make sure if you face some extreme medical challenges, then you better consult with the doctor. Consult with “Dr. Sheetu Singh” to make your condition better and help you lead a better lifestyle afterwards. 

Is Asthma Triggered from the Cold Air? 

When the asthmatic or the allergic person breathes in cold air, it causes issues with the internal muscles and makes them spasm when they are also trying to keep open up. Cold air can make asthma worse by irritating the airways, causing coughing, wheezing, and trouble breathing. People with asthma also struggle more in cold, dry air, especially when it’s windy. The colder and drier the air, the more likely it is to trigger asthma symptoms. Especially those who are much critically triggered with asthma have more problems during such seasons. So, if you have asthma, it’s important to stay warm and avoid being outside in very cold weather. Make sure you better take care of yourself when there is windy air outside. 

What are the Symptoms of Cold-Weather Induced Asthma? 

Symptoms of asthma triggered by cold weather are similar to those caused by other few reasons. These may include:

  • Coughing: This can be either dry or accompanied by phlegm.
  • Wheezing: It is often heard when the person is exhaling.
  • Shortness of breath: Difficulty breathing deeply during cold winter weather.
  • Chest tightness: A feeling of constriction in the chest area.

Why is Cold Weather Hard on People with Asthma? 

Winter brings a range of weather or climatic changes, including cold and dry air, snow, rain, and gusty winds, which can impact individuals even in regions with milder climates. These conditions, coupled with fluctuations in air pressure, are known triggers for health issues. Rainy and windy weather can agitate mold spores, while changes in barometric pressure can lead to sinusitis, both of which may provoke asthma flare-ups.

Furthermore, the winter season sees a surge in illnesses such as colds, flu, and viruses. These infections can exacerbate asthma symptoms by thickening mucus in the bronchial tubes, making breathing more challenging. Consequently, individuals may experience heightened symptoms or asthma flare-ups.

Moreover, during colder months, people tend to spend more time indoors with windows shut and heating systems active. This prolonged indoor exposure increases the likelihood of encountering indoor allergens, irritants, and respiratory viruses. Common triggers include dust, mold, pet dander, and cigarette smoke, all of which can potentially induce asthma flare-ups. Therefore, it’s essential for individuals with asthma to be mindful of these factors and take necessary precautions to manage their condition effectively during the winter season.

Cold Weather can Cause Asthma Attack 

If cold air tends to trigger your asthma, it’s crucial to be cautious during chilly weather to avoid asthma attacks. Refer to your Asthma Action Plan for guidance on managing asthma in cold conditions, and don’t hesitate to seek medical help if your symptoms worsen.

To protect yourself from asthma flare-ups caused by cold air:

Wrap a scarf around your mouth and nose to warm the air before breathing it in.

Keep a short-acting albuterol inhaler handy and use it at the first sign of symptoms to prevent your asthma from getting worse.

Try to stay indoors whenever possible to breathe warmer air, but ensure the indoor environment is free from allergens and irritants.

If you frequently experience asthma symptoms in cold weather, discuss with your doctor about a long-term treatment plan tailored to your needs.

How to Handle Asthma during Winters? 

There are a few things you need to take care of. Read the pointers mentioned below and know what best to do for taking care of yourself:

  • Exercise indoors instead of outside.
  • Wrap a scarf around your mouth and nose in cold weather.
  • Use humidifiers at home, and keep them clean to prevent mold.
  • Wash your hands often with soap or sanitizer to avoid winter illnesses.
  • Avoid touching your face and eyes to prevent spreading germs.
  • Get flu and COVID-19 vaccines as recommended.
  • Have an Asthma Action Plan ready for flare-ups.
  • If you’re allergic to pet dander, limit time with pets and keep your bedroom pet-free.
  • Control dust mites and mold by keeping your home cool and dry.
  • Clean or replace filters in your heating and cooling systems regularly to maintain good indoor air quality.

Conclusion 

Asthma and Allergies, these both can make a person feel so depressive and irritating. We understand the concern and know how much the patients are struggling because of these. But don’t worry, because we can help you out. Hope the information we have shared above was enough for you. Besides sharing this much information, we would like to recommend consulting with Dr. Sheetu Singh. She is the best pulmonologist in Rajasthan, who has the experience and practice enough to guide best.


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The World Health Organization established World Tuberculosis Day to raise awareness of the infectious illness that kills millions of people annually. It is crucial to raise awareness because although tuberculosis is easily treatable, it can remain latent and undiagnosed for years. On March 24, the World Health Organization declared it to be World Tuberculosis Day in honor of the day Dr. Robert Koch identified the bacteria that causes the disease, TB bacillus. Every year, millions of people die from tuberculosis, a dangerous disease that can stay hidden for a long time. The World Health Organization established World Tuberculosis Day to combat disease. The goal is to tell more people about this disease and how to stop it.

The year 2024 is World Tuberculosis Day, an important reminder of the continued international efforts to fight one of the deadliest and most ancient infectious illnesses in human history. This annual observance, held on March 24th, serves as a platform to raise awareness about tuberculosis and to mobilize support for its prevention and treatment. On this day, people from all around the world assemble to discuss the achievements made in the battle against tuberculosis and to discuss ongoing issues. Our shared goal is to turn World Tuberculosis Day into more than simply a day of awareness and a starting point for real-world initiatives that will eradicate the disease.

Dr. Sheetu Singh, a distinguished and compassionate healthcare professional, is set to play a pivotal role in guiding initiatives on World Tuberculosis Day 2024. She is a ray of knowledge and dedication in the battle against TB because of her vast experience in the fields of infectious illnesses and pulmonology. As a dedicated advocate for public health, she will leverage this occasion to provide valuable insights and guidance on the latest advancements in TB research, prevention, and treatment.

The Theme for World Tuberculosis Day 2024 

The theme for World Tuberculosis Day 2024 is “Yes! We Can End TB”. The affirmative slogan signals that eliminating what steals over a million lives yearly is within reach through concerted multilateral action.

Significance of World Tuberculosis Day

  • Tuberculosis Affects Many People: Although TB may seem like an ancient disease, it affects around one-third of the world’s population. In 2016, 10.4 million people got TB, and 1.7 million died because of it. 
  • It’s Not Just Far Away: Although tuberculosis is more of an issue in many nations, it is also spreading closer to your home. For example, in the US, there were more than 9,000 new cases in 2014. By 2016, all fifty states reported cases, with Texas, California, New York, and Florida having the most. 
  • We Can Stop TB: Others believe that tuberculosis is no longer a serious concern. However, by increasing awareness, particularly among those who are vulnerable, we can support their access to therapy. We could eradicate tuberculosis (TB) and perhaps even end tuberculosis in our lifetimes if all who are at risk received the vaccination. World Tuberculosis Day brings everyone together to fight against this serious health problem.

History of World Tuberculosis Day

World Tuberculosis Day, observed annually on March 24th, has its roots in the historic announcements made by Dr. Robert Koch in 1882. On this momentous day, Dr. Koch announced his ground-breaking identification of the bacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB), Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This pivotal moment marked a breakthrough in the understanding of the disease and laid the foundation for future efforts to control and combat TB. The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) established World Tuberculosis Day in 1982, a century after Koch’s groundbreaking discovery, to honor this momentous occasion and to increase public awareness of the terrible effects of tuberculosis. As time has gone on, the day has transformed into a potent advocacy tool that unites communities, researchers, governments, and medical professionals to confront the problems caused by tuberculosis.

World Tuberculosis Day Timeline

  • March 24, 1882 (Cause of TB Discovered): The bacteria that causes tuberculosis, TB bacillus, was discovered by Dr. Robert Koch.
  • 1921 (First Patient Vaccinated): The BCG vaccine was first used on humans after 13 years in the making. 
  • March 24, 1982 (First World Tuberculosis Day Held): To mark the 100th anniversary of Dr. Koch’s discovery, the World Health Organization institutes the inaugural World Tuberculosis Day.
  • 2018 (Honoring Unsung Heroes): Leaders who assisted in the eradication of tuberculosis are honored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as part of the “We Can Make History: End TB” theme.

How To Observe World Tuberculosis Day 

  • Get Tested: Preventing diseases always begins with you. Simple TB testing is occasionally necessary for travel or employment applications. It’s always a good thing to have on your medical records and not in your lungs. 
  • Spread Awareness: Many TB patients are unaware that they have the disease. Latent Tuberculosis can lie dormant for years without a single symptom. It’s crucial to raise awareness about testing and treatment options because of this. The greatest treatment for any disease is prevention. 
  • Volunteer or Donate: On World Tuberculosis Day, activities are done all around the world to raise funds and awareness of the disease. If you can’t find one, organize one yourself. Numerous groups committed to eradicating tuberculosis are always in need of contributions and volunteers.

Why World Tuberculosis Day is Important 

  • Many People Still Suffer From Tuberculosis: Although TB may seem like an ancient illness, over one-third of the world’s population is afflicted with it. It’s estimated that 2 billion people have tuberculosis. 10.4 million cases of tuberculosis were reported in 2016, with 1.7 million fatalities associated with the disease.
  • It’s Closer to Home Than You’d Think: TB affects people far closer to home than you may imagine, even though it is more of an issue in third-world nations. In 2014, there were 9,412 new cases of TB in the United States. All fifty states reported cases of tuberculosis in 2016, with Florida, Texas, New York, and California leading the list. 
  • We Can Stop TB: Owing to an antiquated assumption, TB is not considered a pertinent concern. Spreading awareness about the disease can help those at high risk seek treatment. Tuberculosis may be eliminated during our lifetimes if individuals who are at risk for infection receive the vaccination.

How You Can Take Part on World Tuberculosis Day 

  • Get Checked for Tuberculosis: Start by getting a simple test. It’s simple and could aid in early illness detection. You may occasionally require this test for employment or travel. It’s in your best interest to keep a record of this test.
  • Tell Others About Tuberculosis: Many tuberculosis patients are unaware that they have the disease, particularly in the absence of symptoms. So, let others know about how to get tested and treated. It is usually preferable to prevent a sickness than to attempt a later cure. 
  • Help Out or Give Money: On World Tuberculosis Day, events are held all around the world to raise funds and spread knowledge of the disease. If there isn’t one near you, you can organize something yourself. Many organizations would appreciate your support or donations as they strive to eradicate tuberculosis.

24th March 2024 Special Day 

March 24th is World Tuberculosis Day, a symbolic date that global health supporters use to express hope by remembering historical scientific achievements and resolutely pursuing the disease’s universal eradication. As the specific day draws near, advocacy organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO) gather internationally, bound by the same objective of advancing knowledge and improving preventive tactics initially introduced by Dr. Robert Koch. by uniting all stakeholders to educate and screen communities, this event offers a chance to spark global momentum for positive change and bend the arc away from TB morbidity.

FAQ's

Why is World Tuberculosis Day observed on March 24th?

On March 24, we celebrate World TB Day, which marks the day in 1882 when Dr. Robert Koch reported the discovery of the Mycobacterium TB bacteria.

What is the theme of World Tuberculosis Day 2024?

The theme for World Tuberculosis Day 2024 is “Yes! We Can End TB”.

How can individuals contribute to TB awareness?

People may raise awareness of tuberculosis (TB) in a variety of ways, including by teaching others and themselves about the disease, busting myths and misconceptions, supporting programs about TB, and encouraging early identification and treatment.

What is the current global burden of TB?

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 10 million individuals contracted tuberculosis (TB) in 2020, and 1.5 million of those cases resulted in death, placing TB among the top ten causes of mortality globally.

Can TB be prevented?

TB can be prevented through vaccination (BCG vaccine), early detection, and appropriate treatment. Preventing tuberculosis also requires addressing socioeconomic variables like hunger and poverty.

Is TB curable?

If treated properly and promptly, tuberculosis is curable. Conventional tuberculosis therapy is taking a series of antibiotics for a certain amount of time.


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Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Inhaler Devices: Inhalers are the very first thing prescribed by doctors to the patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Every patient or the ones who have their family or friends struggling with such respiratory or chronic diseases know about what Inhalers are? Although it is a primary source of medication to the ones having respiratory or pulmonary issues. On the contrary, they must have heard that it is dangerous too. 

No wonder that, people have opinions on the medications too, but definitely we cannot take the risk. So here Dr, Sheetu Singh has come with some great information about inhalers to the readers. This blog will tell you the advantages, as well as the disadvantages of Inhalers. Not the 100% surety, but this information will clear some doubts to the concerned people. 

So without wasting more minutes, let’s dive into the real info. 

What are Inhalers? 

Well before jumping into the perks and lacks; better is to know what we are intaking. Inhalers are these small hand-handheld devices, which contain a small bottle with dry powder or soft mist kind of medicine inside and the user will pump it to intake medicine through his mouth directly to his lungs. This will work efficiently and immediately in a few minutes, which opens your narrowed airways and reduces inflammation in your lungs. 

Different Types of Inhalers 

The advantages and disadvantages of inhalers depend upon its types. There are commonly 3 types of inhalers available; and all 3 of them have different perks and drawbacks. Therefore, learn about the types of inhalers: 

Metered Dose Inhalers 

Metered Dose Inhalers (MDI or pMDI); these are also known as “Puffers.” In the puffers, a small canister is attached to the handheld device holding to the medicine. It also has a mouthpiece along the device for the user to intake the puff accordingly. The person will hold the mouthpiece into his mouth, press the canister downwards, and the propellant (something which holds the medicine inside the canister) will release medicine to the patient’s mouth. The patient will intake the medicine through his mouth, and pull the medicine inside directly to his lungs. It is the most preferred inhaler by the pulmonologists. 

Dry Powdered Inhalers 

DPI is a kind of inhaler, in which the patient does not require to press the canister, but he has to deep breathe and pull the medicine inside the lungs. The medicine is stored in capsules, and you will have a hand-helded device in which the patient has to stick the capsules at its place. Then he has to rotate the lower lid, which spreads the medicine inside the device, and later the patient will deep breathe and pull the medicine inside. 

There are different types of Dry Powdered Inhalers (DPIs) available, based on different brands designs. 

Soft Mist Inhalers are in liquid form, which turns into mist, and the patient will directly consume medicine through mouth to his lungs via breathing. 

Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Types of Inhalers

Inhaler Type 

Advantages 

Disadvantages 

Metered Dose Inhalers Easy to carry, Portable Source of Medication Need to coordinate with breadth while pressing
Easy to Intake Patients cannot coordinate with inhaler’s pressing time and their breadth (in some cases)
Right amount of medicine in single doseCan cause irritation in mouth and throat 
Dry Powdered Inhaler No need to coordinate between inhaling and pressing the button to inhale Difficult for the to intake who has improper or worse lung functioning 
Can use without shaking Some people cannot take it, because they cannot deeply breathe inside
Improved storage and no effect by cold weather More efforts to intake, because a deep breathing is required in DPI. 
Soft Mist Inhalers Deliver medicine to the lungs slowly through gentle mist It is expensive compared to other inhalers 
Suitable to those patients, who has coordination issues with breathing and inhaling Regular cleaning and maintaining the equipments of the device 
Easier and simpler intake with any angle It is a bit challenging to find such inhalers in the nearby pharmaceutical shops. 

Conclusion 

We hope that you got enough basic information, which is required for the patients to know about the inhalers. No wonder that inhalers are good for the patients having asthmatic, COPD, and other respiratory issues. But at the very same time, these are harmful too. 

After gaining all the above information and self-research we have conducted; we conclude here that “It is very crucial to carry inhalers for the patients having such diseases.” To prevent its adverse effect, it is better you take suggestions and ask for the right dosage from a doctor. Never take inhalers without getting examined by a doctor, because he will study the condition and suggest for the best. 

If you need suggestions, you can consult with the best pulmonologist in Jaipur “Dr. Sheetu Singh.” He is an experienced, and also well practiced doctor to suggest prescriptions.


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Why Asthma in the Winter Season is Worse: Countless asthmatic patients want to know why they struggle more with their health during winter. Well, their question is appropriate because the winter season triggers respiratory problems more and makes them worse. Asthma sufferers have to face lots of challenges during cold weather due to various reasons. Moreover, they need to take care of themselves more during this time to be fit and stay healthier.

Don’t worry, because here we are to help you with our guide. In this blog, we will share the reasons why Asthma triggers more, why conditions get worse during winter for asthma patients, and what they can do to deal with this. This briefing will help you a lot, but besides this, you better consult with a doctor for more suggestions. Do not delay in visiting the doctor if your health condition gets out of your care a bit. 

Now let’s discuss it and figure out the best possibilities for better health. 

How Asthma Gets Triggered By Cold Weather?

The winter weather causes irritation in the airways, and also swells and inflammation the lining of the airways. The symptoms of asthma, including wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and tightness in the chest, worsen due to this inflammation.

The weather in winter isn’t always predictable; days with unusually mild temperatures alternate with cold fronts. Every time you step outside in the frost and then come inside to warm, air-conditioned air, your airways are likewise subjected to abrupt temperature shifts.

Sudden changes in temperature can also cause symptoms to flare up.” Extremes of heat or cold can aggravate an asthmatic’s condition.

It could appear that during the winter months, allergies to environmental triggers like ragweed or pollen take a break. However, keep in mind that if you travel during the winter to avoid the cold, these triggers will come back. Climates that are hot and muggy might also exacerbate asthma attacks.

Reasons why Asthma Gets Worse During Winters?

There are certain reasons why cold weather, triggers Asthma; such as: 

  • Dry Air Outside 

Your airways in the lungs are protected and layered with fluids. When you get into cold weather, the fluid gets evaporated which makes the airways inflamed and irritated. This is how dry air inhaling becomes challenging and that creates more problems to an asthmatic patient. 

  • Respiratory Illness 

Your airways are also protected with a layer of mucus, but that layer will get thick during the winter season. This enhances the chance of respiratory illness; such as cold, cough, and flu. These common winter infections can create major problems to your airways; which worsen the situation of asthma afterward. 

  • Exercises 

No denying that exercise is great for health and staying fit. But in the meantime, these exercises require huge lung capacity. Even when you walk in cold air, your airways become narrowed and restricted to breathing. This causes problems with breathing appropriately, and worsen the condition of asthma. 

  • Lower Immune System 

Cold weather impacts one’s immune system, which makes it hard for human body cells to fight against respiratory infections. Due to the non-fighting capacity of the immune system, you won’t be able to fight against illnesses that worsen asthma conditions again.

  • Spend Most Time Indoors 

When it’s winter, most people prefer staying at home during cold weather. Due to staying at home for a long period; this will increase the chances of respiratory problems, and can trigger asthma more. 

Precautions to Take During Winters for Asthma Patients 

  1. Use Your Inhaler accordingly: Keep using your inhaler on a regular basis to improve your quality of life and asthma management.
  2. Wash your hands: The best defense against any infection is to wash your hands with soap and water. It is advised to often sanitize your hands when you are outside to prevent infection of any kind.
  3. Wear masks: You can prevent infections by covering your mouth and nose with a mask. Additionally, shielding your face with a mask will safeguard you from the cold and wind.
  4. Maintain a dust-free home: To lessen allergens, dust your home often. One needs to be cautious about indoor pollution because fewer people are working from home these days and because colleges are offering online courses. Keeping your home clean will help you prevent asthma episodes.
  5. Give up smoking: Giving up smoking is beneficial for any health-related issues.
  6. Dress warmly when you go outside to avoid being exposed to the cold. When you leave the house, dressing warmly can help you retain body heat.

Conclusion

No denial with the worst asthmatic conditions during winters. But these respiratory problems can be sorted out with right advice from a good pulmonologist, and taking care of precautions. This blog was fair enough for you to understand the cause of worst asthma condition during cold weather, and some precautions to follow in order to deal with the condition. 

Also, don’t forget to take guidance from doctors to know what best to do for better healthcare measures.

Book your Consultation

Dr. Sheetu Singh is here with influential health solutions, which helps the patients to cure their asthmatic condition. Also she suggests the best remedies, healthcare solutions, and more; which keeps the patients stay healthy and safe. Contact us…



National Vaccination Day is observed every year on March 16. The significance of vaccination and its role in public health is emphasized on this day. One day in 1995, the first dose of the oral polio vaccine was given in India. Immunization, often known as vaccination, is the most efficient way to avoid highly contagious diseases. The World Health Organization (WHO) states that vaccination is a tried-and-true method of preventing and curing infectious diseases that pose a serious threat to human health. Immunization is essential for raising standards of public health and life expectancy as well as for enhancing social and economic effects at the local and national levels.

In the worldwide fight against infectious illnesses and for the preservation of public health, National Vaccination Day 2024 represents a critical turning point. On this day, nations around the world come together to emphasize the importance of vaccination in preventing the spread of various illnesses. The day serves as a reminder of the vital role vaccines play in boosting immunity and lessening the burden of infectious illnesses on communities in the face of ongoing health issues. Healthcare professionals, governments, and communities collaborate to raise awareness about the benefits of vaccination, dispel myths, and encourage individuals to get vaccinated.

On National Vaccination Day 2024, Dr. Sheetu Singh emerges as an inspiring guide and advocate for the importance of immunization. She offers invaluable guidance on the significance of vaccinations in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Dr. Sheetu Singh utilizes community outreach and educational programs to make sure people are aware of the advantages of vaccinations and to instill a sense of responsibility for the health of the whole community. Her leadership on this national day acts as a beacon, inspiring people to put their health first and support the larger initiative to achieve universal immunization.

National Vaccination Day 2024 Theme

“Vaccines Work for All” is the affirming theme for India’s National Vaccination Day on March 16th, 2024. The theme suggests all human lives, regardless of age, gender, location, or economic status, must be protected from avoidable diseases by safe and effective immunization. 

Significance of National Vaccination Day

The Indian government and other organizations organize vaccination campaigns nationwide on this day to protect adults and children from a range of illnesses. The goal is to vaccinate those who might have neglected to receive their recommended immunizations. On National Vaccination Day, we have the chance to clarify any misunderstandings and promote vaccination awareness while also educating people about the advantages of immunization. Public education about the value of prompt and comprehensive immunization in halting the spread of disease is done through awareness campaigns.

To guarantee that all children under the age of two and pregnant women receive all available vaccinations, the Indian government initiated Mission Indra Dhanush in 2014. India has established a goal of 2023 for the vaccination of children and expectant mothers against the measles and rubella virus. More than a lakh children die from measles every year, while rubella causes birth defects. Both can be prevented by vaccines.

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has made National Vaccination Day even more important in recent years. Vaccination initiatives have been supported by the Indian government to shield the populace from the virus and stop the disease from spreading.

History of National Vaccination Day

Vaccinations have been done for hundreds of years. There is evidence that the Chinese used smallpox vaccination as early as 1000 A.D. Before it reached Europe and the Americas, it was also practiced by African and Turkish people.

The vaccinia virus, often known as cowpox, was injected into a 13-year-old kid in 1976, and the youngster developed immunity against smallpox. Edward Jenner is regarded as the founder of vaccination. In 1798, the first smallpox vaccine was developed, and during the 18th and 19th centuries, mass smallpox immunization led to the disease’s eradication in 1979. Louis Pasteur’s experiments produced the inactivated anthrax and cholera vaccines, and in the late 1800s, he also created the vaccine against plague. The BCG vaccination, which is still in use today, was one of the several bacterial vaccines developed between 1890 and 1950. Alexander Glenny discovered the ideal way to render tetanus toxin inactive using formaldehyde in 1923. The diphtheria vaccine was created in 1926 using the same technique. The development of viral tissue culture techniques between 1950 and 1985 resulted in the development of the Salk and Sabin polio vaccines.

Over the last 20 years, recombinant hepatitis B and seasonal influenza vaccines have been successfully developed and manufactured, marking significant advancements in the field of vaccination.

National Vaccination Day Timeline 

  • 1940s (Large-Scale Vaccine Production): Large-scale vaccination production and disease control initiatives are made possible by advances in scientific knowledge. 
  • 1960s (The M.M.R. Vaccine): Mumps, Measles, and Rubella vaccines are combined to form the M.M.R. vaccine.
  • 1972 (The Smallpox Vaccine is Removed): After smallpox is eradicated worldwide, the vaccination is stopped. 
  • 2020 (COVID-19 Vaccines): The vaccinations required to combat the COVID-19 pandemic have been authorized.

Why National Vaccination Day is Important 

  • They Save Lives: Immunization programs and vaccines save lives. They are essential for leading a healthy life and helping individuals advance economically and socially. 
  • Remarkable Human Achievements: One of the most significant human achievements to date has undoubtedly been the invention of vaccinations. National Vaccination Day celebrates the triumphs of medical science. 
  • A Day to Say Thanks: It is the ideal time to express gratitude to the scientists, researchers, and medical professionals who work to keep us healthy on National Vaccination Day. they work tirelessly to develop vaccines that save our lives.

How To Observe National Vaccination Day 

  • Take a Look at Your Vaccination Records: Take out your immunization records to review the shots you’ve had since birth. Thanks to timely vaccinations, you will be surprised to see how safe you are from deadly diseases. 
  • Schedule a Vaccination Appointment: Make an appointment on National Immunization Day if you haven’t had your immunization in a while or if you require one because of a health issue. It is the ideal opportunity to be reminded. 
  • Fight Misinformation: Many people are fearful and disseminate false information on vaccines. Encourage individuals to look for information from trustworthy sources and dispel false information found on social media.

How To Celebrate National Vaccination Day 

  • Host a Vaccination Party: Invite family and friends over for a vaccination party. Get vaccinated together to recognize the value of immunizations, and then share some food and beverages to celebrate. 
  • Organize a Community Vaccination Drive: Collaborate with nearby healthcare providers to plan a community immunization campaign. This is a great strategy to raise awareness and provide easy access to vaccinations for people who might not otherwise receive them. 
  • Create a Social Media Campaign: Utilize your social media accounts to raise awareness of the value of vaccinations and National Vaccination Day. Share personal stories, and informative posts, and use hashtags to reach a wider audience.   
  • Donate to Vaccine Organizations: Donate to organizations that give immunizations to underprivileged people. This is a fantastic way to celebrate National Vaccination Day and assist make a difference in the world. 
  • Watch a Documentary About Vaccinations: Gather some family or friends and watch a documentary about vaccinations. This is an excellent opportunity to spend time together and discover more about the background and significance of immunizations.
FAQs

What is National Vaccination Day?

National Vaccination Day also known as National Immunization Day or Polio Ravivar, is an annual event celebrated in India on March 16th. The purpose of the day is to encourage vaccination programs and increase public understanding of the value of vaccinations in the prevention of infectious diseases.

What is the theme of National Vaccination Day 2024?

The Theme for National Vaccination Day 2024 is “Vaccines Work for All”.

Why is National Vaccination Day celebrated?

National Vaccination Day aims to increase public awareness of the value of immunizations in stopping the spread of infectious diseases. It serves as a reminder of the significance of immunization in safeguarding public health.

Are there any special vaccination campaigns planned for National Vaccination Day 2024?

Yes, for National Vaccination Day in 2024, some nations and medical associations have organized unique vaccination programs. These campaigns may include educational programs, vaccination drives, and community outreach initiatives. 

When was National Vaccination Day first celebrated?

The government’s Pulse Polio Immunization program was introduced to commemorate the day for the first time in 1995 to combat polio. As part of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) program, which began in 1988, the first oral polio vaccination dosage was administered on March 16, 1995.

Who is the founder of Vaccination?

Dr Edward Jenner created the world’s first successful vaccine. He discovered that cowpox patients were resistant to smallpox.

How does National Vaccination Day contribute to global health efforts?

By raising awareness of the value of vaccinations—which are essential for developing herd immunity and stopping the spread of infectious illnesses around the world—National Vaccination Day supports international efforts to promote health.


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How to Improve Asthma in Winter: There are countless people struggling with respiratory and asthmatic problems. This is a serious medical concern, which requires special medical concern for months. Most importantly, these patients need to take care of themselves in the winter season. This all-inclusive guide highlights ways to lessen winter-related issues and provides a thorough strategy to treating asthma during the colder months. This season, everything from environmental variables to lifestyle changes aims to empower asthmatics to take control of their treatment.

  • Understanding Asthma

It is important to understand what Asthma is, before we learn about how to handle this chronic medical problem in the winter season. Asthma is a severe chronic lung disease characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to recurring episodes of breathlessness, coughing, and wheezing. This section aims to equip readers with a foundational understanding of the condition, laying the groundwork for informed decision-making in the context of winter asthma management.

  • Seasonal Impact on Asthma

Patients with asthma experience more difficulties throughout the winter months due to a combination of environmental factors and seasonal stressors. Understanding these seasonal variations—which can include increased indoor allergens and chilly, dry air—is crucial. This section explores the ways in which winter weather and other factors might exacerbate asthma symptoms, providing the foundation for targeted therapies intended to address these problems and enhance respiratory health overall. 

Winter and Asthma

Asthma sufferers are greatly affected by winter, which may make managing the condition more challenging. This section examines the various ways that winter, from lowered temperatures to changed air quality, may impact asthma symptoms. Understanding these dynamics is necessary to develop workable approaches for surviving the winter without jeopardizing respiratory health.

  • Why Winter Exacerbates Asthma

It has been demonstrated that asthma episodes are made worse by winter’s lower temps. Asthma sufferers find it harder to breathe because chilly air can constrict airways. Additionally, the dry winter air that irritates the respiratory system might worsen inflammation. This section explores the physiological causes of winter exacerbations of asthma to shed light on the mechanisms that aggravate symptoms of the disease throughout the winter.

  • Common Triggers During Winter

Winter triggers a unique mix of conditions that may cause asthma symptoms. The common triggers that are widespread during the winter are explained and highlighted in this section. These triggers can range from internal problems like heating systems and greater exposure to allergens to environmental barriers like cold air and respiratory illnesses. It’s critical to recognize these triggers in order to mitigate their effects and enhance asthma control throughout the winter months.

Indoor Environment

For people who have asthma, making the most of their indoor environment is crucial when winter forces us to spend more time inside. This section examines several facets of indoor life, emphasizing the critical roles that ventilation, air quality, and heating systems have in determining asthma symptoms. People may establish a more secure and encouraging atmosphere for their asthma management throughout the winter by being aware of and responding to these interior dynamics.

  • Heating Systems and Asthma

Heating systems may inadvertently exacerbate asthma symptoms, even though they are essential for winter comfort. This section delves into the specific ways that various heating techniques impact respiratory health. The hazards associated with heating systems will be discussed, along with ways to improve the home environment for those who suffer from asthma. Topics covered include forced-air systems that disseminate dust and allergens and the drying effect of central heating.

  • Maintaining Indoor Air Quality

Indoor air quality has a significant influence on respiratory health, especially in the winter when buildings are sealed off from the cold. This section provides practical strategies for maintaining optimal indoor air quality. Addressing issues like mildew, pet dander, and dust mites will teach readers useful tactics to reduce allergies and irritants. By using these techniques, individuals may create indoor spaces that support respiratory health and lessen the impact of asthma triggers.

  • Ventilation and Asthma Control

The possible impacts of ventilation systems on respiratory health are examined in this section. Having enough ventilation inside is crucial for managing asthma. Through the careful consideration of both the need for outside allergens and the need for fresh air, readers will get an understanding of effective ventilation strategies. People may create a breathable and asthma-friendly indoor atmosphere, especially during the winter, by making educated decisions about their living spaces when they are aware of how ventilation influences asthma treatment.

Outdoor Precautions

For those who have asthma, going outside in the winter requires taking extra safety measures. This section focuses on doable tactics to reduce respiratory difficulties while exposed to lower temperatures and possible causes. Readers will acquire important knowledge about protecting their respiratory health when participating in outdoor activities in the winter, from clothing selections to air quality awareness.

  • Dressing Appropriately for Cold Weather

Wearing appropriate clothing is essential for reducing the negative effects of cold weather on asthma. Advice on dressing appropriately to stay warm without sacrificing respiratory comfort is given in this section. Readers will discover how smart clothing choices may act as a protective barrier against the cold, lowering the likelihood of asthma symptoms produced by exposure to chilly weather. This includes layering tactics and concerns for protecting the face.

  • Avoiding Cold Air Triggers

This section explores practical methods for preventing and reducing exposure to cold air causes, as cold air is known to aggravate asthma symptoms. Readers will learn useful advice for being active outdoors while lowering the chance of increasing asthma symptoms owing to the environmental barriers offered by winter weather, from detecting specific weather conditions to comprehending how to breathe in cold weather.

  • Monitoring Air Quality

In winter, when people with asthma go outside, it’s crucial to evaluate and keep an eye on the quality of the air. The effect of air pollution on respiratory health is examined in this section, along with tips for keeping up with local air quality events. Readers who integrate air quality monitoring into their daily routines can minimize their exposure to pollutants and maximize their ability to control their asthma throughout the winter months by making well-informed decisions regarding outside activities.

Medication Management

Winter time asthma management necessitates a careful approach to treatment. The significance of a well-tailored drug regimen to overcome seasonal problems is emphasized in this section. Readers will learn how to customize their prescription regimens to maintain optimal respiratory health during the colder months, from comprehending winter-specific modifications to maximizing inhaler usage.

  • Winter-Specific Medication Adjustments

Winter’s unique challenges necessitate adjustments to asthma medication plans. This section guides adapting dosage and frequency to address seasonal triggers. Whether it’s anticipating increased symptoms or adjusting preventive measures, readers will learn how to work collaboratively with healthcare providers to fine-tune their medication plans for winter, enhancing overall asthma management during this specific time of the year.

  • Using Inhalers Effectively in Cold Weather

Cold weather can impact the effectiveness of inhalers, posing challenges for individuals with asthma. In this section, readers will discover practical tips for using inhalers efficiently in cold conditions. From proper storage to techniques for warming inhalers, understanding how cold weather affects these essential devices empowers individuals to maintain consistent medication delivery, ensuring that their asthma remains well-controlled even in the face of winter’s cold temperatures.

Diet and Nutrition

Maintaining a healthy diet is essential for managing asthma, particularly in the winter. This section examines the relationship between respiratory health and nutrition, with a particular emphasis on foods that may lessen asthma symptoms. With options ranging from nutrient-rich to anti-inflammatory, readers will learn how to create a diet that supports their asthma management strategy and promotes general well being even in the face of winter’s obstacles.

  • Foods that May Help Asthma Symptoms

Certain foods have qualities that can lessen the symptoms of asthma. More details on these items are included in this section to help readers include them into their everyday diet. Understanding the roles performed by different foods, from supplies of critical vitamins and minerals to antioxidants with anti-inflammatory characteristics, can help people make educated dietary choices that promote respiratory health, especially in light of winter-related issues.

  • Staying Hydrated in Dry Winter Air

Because of how the dry air of winter can aggravate respiratory conditions, staying hydrated is essential for managing asthma. This section provides helpful advice on reaching the ideal fluid consumption while highlighting the significance of staying hydrated during the winter months. People can improve respiratory comfort and lower their chance of developing asthma symptoms brought on by dehydration and the negative effects of dry winter air by taking appropriate measures to hydrate.

Conclusion

It is crucial to examine the key strategies for preserving respiratory health throughout the winter months in order to effectively manage asthma. Every section was created with the intention of giving readers practical information, from recognizing and controlling internal triggers to using caution when navigating external hurdles. With winter disappearing and spring approaching, the focus shifts to getting ready for a change in the dynamics of the environment. The importance of an adapted asthma treatment plan is emphasized in the final section, which also urges readers to put the knowledge they have gained to use. By being proactive and informed, people can successfully manage seasonal variations and keep control over their asthma symptoms while looking forward to the healing days of spring.

Remarks from Dr. Sheetu Singh 

The shared information above is important for the readers to keep them and their family safe in winters from respiratory problems. Those who are struggling with asthma must follow the mentioned precautions and tips to be safe and live healthily. Still, it is better if you consult with the well-known medical specialist Dr. Sheetu Singh, who can help you to handle and treat asthma sooner.


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National No Smoking Day, held every second Wednesday of March, will be March 13, 2024. The purpose of the day is to provide support to friends and family who are addicted to nicotine. According to research, there are fewer and fewer people in the globe who smoke cigarettes and are not making an effort to stop. As time passes, the stigma associated with smoking and the risks of breathing in secondhand and firsthand smoke are likely to worsen. No Smoking Day 2024 is a heartfelt call to action for people all around the world to free themselves from the grip of tobacco addiction.

Every year on March 13th, this event aims to increase public awareness of the negative health impacts of smoking and the advantages of living a smoke-free life. Leading this international effort are coordinated campaigns to support individuals who are trying to stop smoking, motivate smokers to give up, and inform communities about the dangers of tobacco use. This day strives to encourage healthy lifestyle changes and promote a healthier society through public awareness campaigns, educational initiatives, and community involvement. We must work together to create a smoke-free environment so that people can breathe easily and lead longer more satisfying lives.

Dr. Sheetu Singh, a distinguished expert in the field of public health and tobacco cessation, emerges as a guiding force on No Smoking Day 2024. She is a passionate supporter of living a smoke-free life and leads campaigns to spread important knowledge about the dangers of smoking as well as helpful advice for those who want to give it up. Her dedication to public health emphasizes the value of making educated decisions and provides people with the information they need to start a better, smoke-free life. 

The Theme of No Smoking Day 2024

The theme for No Smoking Day 2024 is Protecting Children from Tobacco Industry Interference.

History of National No Smoking Day

The origins of No Smoking Day may be traced to a small group of people in the UK who decided to start a campaign to educate people about the negative consequences of smoking in the early 1980s. On Ash Wednesday in 1984, the ruling clergy in the Republic of Ireland decided that giving up cigarettes for Lent would be a good idea, and that’s how National No Smoking Day began. 

The purpose of No Smoking Day was to raise awareness of the dangers of smoking and to motivate smokers to give it up. The objectives of the initiative were to make non-smokers’ surroundings smoke-free and to give smokers the assistance they need to stop. Over the years, No Smoking Day has evolved and expanded its scope beyond the UK. The day is now observed globally, with campaigns and events organized in several countries worldwide. No Smoking Day has played a significant role in lowering the smoking rate, particularly among younger people. Promoting awareness of the health risks associated with smoking and motivating smokers to give up have been achieved through the day’s activities and events.

Finally, it should be noted that No Smoking Day is a significant occasion in the global health calendar that aims to raise awareness of the negative consequences of smoking and motivate smokers to quit. The history of No Smoking Day may be traced to a small group of people who started a campaign to increase public awareness of the dangers of smoking in the early 1980s. The day has since evolved and expanded its scope, with campaigns and events organized globally. Over the previous three years, 80,000 people gave off smoking, according to the annual Healthy Ireland Survey.

According to the World Health Organization, about 8 million people die from tobacco use every year, accounting for up to half of all deaths. Approximately 1.2 million deaths are attributable to secondhand smoke exposure, but over 7 million deaths are directly related to tobacco usage. 

National No Smoking Day Timeline 

  • 1960 (Read’em and weep): The packaging of tobacco and cigarettes in the US first includes health warnings. 
  • 1984 (No “Butts” About it): The first National No Smoking Day is recognized in Ireland. 
  • 2003 (Now, it’s Official): The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control is adopted by the World Health Organization and encourages label-based smoking prevention.
  • 2020 (Still Going Strong): The British Heart Foundation’s 2020 campaign continues to gain momentum with the slogan, “Tobacco breaks your heart.”

How to Observe National No Smoking Day 

  • Quit: There are a ton of options in the United States and the United Kingdom for smokers who decide they’ve had enough but need assistance quitting. 
  • Support a loved one who wants to quit: It is advised to take a customized approach for each friend or member of the family, as each person knows them best. Helping others can take many forms, such as nagging, loving encouragement, smoking cessation, and placing material all over the house. The main thing is to be there for the person as they undergo this challenging endeavor. 
  • Shop at stores that don’t sell tobacco products: The simple act of quitting tobacco can help prevent or treat addiction. Avoid purchasing cigarettes while accompanied by friends or family who may be hooked by choosing to shop at establishments that do not offer them. 

How is No Smoking Day Celebrated 

Every year, a new subject is themes to symbolize the campaign’s objective. Om 2010, for example, the theme that was chosen was ‘Break Free”. Ads, promotions, and special messaging are created to remind smokers and non-smokers to continue or begin their quitting regimen. No Smoking Day has had some fantastic outcomes over the years; according to data, 1 in 10 smokers gave up on the day in 2009. This day is celebrated worldwide through various campaigns, events, and initiatives organized by health organizations, workplaces, schools, and communities. These initiatives seek to inform individuals about the dangers smoking poses to their health, offer resources to help them stop, and foster a supportive atmosphere for those who are trying to give up. No Smoking Day often involves public events, such as workshops, seminars, and health fairs, where experts share information on smoking cessation strategies and the benefits of a smoke-free lifestyle.

Why We Love National No Smoking Day 

  • It clears the air: The Centers for Disease Control estimate that among adult Americans, secondhand smoke alone results in over 41,000 deaths annually.  On National No Smoking Day, the greater the number of smokers who give up, the less secondhand smoke enters the lungs of non-smokers. 
  • Good health is a good thing: Few would contest that long life, easy breathing, and a healthy lifestyle are undesirable. Along with a few other benefits, giving up smoking enhances your skin, sense of smell, heart and lung health, and other aspects of your life. 
  • It’s a hit to big tobacco: This company sells a lethal product. Although Big Tobacco is still quite powerful in the political arena, it will not be able to survive if the number of smokers falls below a certain level.
FAQ's

When is National No Smoking Day 2024?

March 13, the second Wednesday of March 2024, is designated as National No Smoking Day.

Why is No Smoking Day celebrated?

No Smoking Day is observed to encourage efforts to kick the habit and increase public awareness of the negative effects of smoking.  It acts as a prompt for people to put their health first and make wise choices regarding tobacco use.

What events are organized on National No Smoking Day?

On National No Smoking Day, a variety of activities are planned, including health fairs, lectures, workshops, and awareness campaigns. These initiatives seek to inform the public about the risks associated with smoking and offer resources for quitting. 

Are there any resources available for quitting smoking? 

Yes, there are lots of resources out there, such as online support groups, counseling programs, and call centers. Health organizations often provide information on effective smoking cessation methods and tools. 

What are the health risks associated with smoking?

Smoking is linked to various health risks, including heart disease, lung cancer, respiratory issues, and more. On National No Smoking Day, these dangers are highlighted to encourage people to give up and enhance their general health. 

How can workplaces support National No Smoking Day?

By planning awareness campaigns, supporting smoke-free workplace rules, and offering assistance to staff members who want to stop smoking, workplaces may help observe the day.  Employers can also promote a healthy work environment.


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World Cancer Day held every 4 February is the global uniting initiative led by the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC). UICC is working together to reimagine a world where millions of avoidable cancer deaths are prevented and access to life-saving cancer treatment and care is equitable for all – regardless of who you are or where you live – by increasing global awareness, enhancing education, and sparking individual, group, and governmental action. World Cancer Day aims to stop millions of cancer-related deaths by spreading knowledge, dispelling misconceptions about the disease, and encouraging governments to take action. Every three years, World Cancer Day and the UICC announce a new campaign theme and the specific focus of each year.

In the world of cancer, World Cancer Day is significant. Many individuals spend some time reflecting on friends or family members they lost to cancer. They use World Cancer Day as a way of remembering and celebrating their lives. It is a global observance that assists in raising people awareness of cancer and how to prevent, detect, or treat it. This event is held on February 4 each year. World Cancer Day is an important reminder of the ongoing global war against cancer, and Dr. Sheetu Singh stands out as a leader in this unwavering effort. Dr. Singh has a significant influence on how people see cancer awareness and prevention due to his unwavering commitment and knowledge. Her dedication to spreading knowledge about healthy lifestyle choices, early detection, and the most recent developments in cancer treatment confirms her position as a leading expert in the field. 

The Theme of World Cancer Day 2024 

The Theme for World Cancer Day 2024 is “Close the Care Gap”. This theme emphasizes how different groups and geographical areas have unequal access to high-quality cancer care. It raises attention to the necessity of taking action to guarantee that everyone, irrespective of background or situation, has access to palliative care, cancer treatment, diagnosis, and prevention. 

The theme intends to highlight the disparities in the:

  • Prevention: Not everyone has access to cancer prevention resources and knowledge. 
  • Diagnosis: Effective therapy depends on early detection, but many people may not have easy access to a prompt and correct diagnosis. 
  • Treatment: Distinct populations have varying degrees of access to reasonably priced and efficacious medical care. 
  • Palliative Care: Cancer patients frequently do not have access to sufficient pain relief and supportive care. 

Significance of World Cancer Day 

World Cancer Day has had a significant impact in a variety of areas:

  • Increased Awareness: Globally, it has increased awareness about cancer, busting myths and misconceptions along the way and motivating people to put their health first. 
  • Improved Access to Care: It has contributed to improved access to cancer diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and palliative care in many regions. 
  • Enhanced research Efforts: It has fostered international collaboration in research, leading to discoveries and advancements in cancer treatment. 
  • Empowered Communities: People and communities now can take control of their health and fight for improved cancer care. 

World Cancer Day Timeline

  • 1937-National Cancer Institute Created: The National Cancer Institute was founded by legislation passed by the US Congress, marking the beginning of a federal endeavor to fight cancer. 
  • 1971- War on Cancer Declared: The National Cancer Act, signed by President Richard Nixon, initiated a coordinated national endeavor to investigate and combat cancer. 
  • 2000-World Cancer Day Founded: World Cancer Day was established by the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) at the Paris-based World Summit Against Cancer. 
  • 2016-” We Can I Can”: “We Can. I Can.” is a three-year program that World Cancer Day initiated, emphasizing both individual and group efforts to lessen the effect of cancer. 
  • 2019-” I Am and I Will”: World Cancer Day introduced a new three-year campaign, “I Am and I Will”, emphasizing personal commitment and empowering actions against cancer.

History of World Cancer Day 

World Cancer Day, which occurs on February 4th every year, has a long history of bringing attention to cancer worldwide, encouraging education, and spurring action to lessen its effects. Here’s a glimpse into its evolution: 

  • 1933: The first steps toward worldwide cooperation in cancer control were taken with the founding of the worldwide Union Against Cancer (UICC) in Paris. 
  • 1990: The World Cancer Day Steering Committee was established by the UICC, which strengthened the idea of a worldwide day of cancer awareness. 
  • 2000: The World Summit against Cancer for the New Millennium was held in Paris. The occasion formally established World Cancer Day on February 4th, bringing in its global praise.

Types of Cancer

  • Carcinomas: Cancers that originate in the lining of organs such as lung cancer, breast cancer, and Colon cancer. 
  • Sarcomas: Cancers that develop in connective tissues, such as muscle, bone, and fat.
  • Leukemias: Cancers that affect the bone marrow and blood.
  • Lymphomas: Cancers that arise within the lymphatic system, an immune system component.

Causes of Cancer 

While the precise causation of cancer is unknown, several factors are thought to be involved, such as:

  • Genetics: The chance of acquiring cancer may rise in response to specific gene mutations. These mutations may develop on their own during a person’s lifespan or may be inherited from parents. 
  • Environmental Factors: Exposure to Carcinogens, such as radiation, tobacco smoke, and some chemicals can damage DNA and lead to cancer. 
  • Lifestyle Factors: A poor diet, inactivity, smoking, and excessive alcohol intake are all risk factors for different kinds of cancer.

Symptoms of Cancer 

Cancer can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the type and location of the cancer. Some common symptoms include:

  • Fever.
  • Fatigue.
  • Pain.
  • Unexplained weight loss or gain.
  • Bumps or Lumps.
  • Unusual discharge or bleeding.
  • Changes in skin or bowel habits. 

How to Celebrate World Cancer Day 

  • Organize a Fundraiser: Organize a charity event or fundraiser event to benefit cancer research, such as a car wash, bake sale, or charity walk. You can contribute all of the earnings to help fund cancer research and care. 
  • Volunteer at a Cancer Center: Investigate nearby cancer centers and get in touch with them to offer your assistance. Numerous medical facilities are constantly in need of volunteers to assist with patient care, administrative duties, and other tasks. 
  • Spread Awareness: To raise awareness of World Cancer Day, use social media.  Share posts about the importance of prevention, early detection, and treatment of Cancer on your profile or create a special hashtag. 
  • Donate to a Cancer Charity: On this World Cancer Day, choose which cancer organization you would want to support with a donation. Every little bit helps.
  • Host a Screening Event: Organize a community screening event to showcase informative documentaries and videos about cancer awareness, prevention, and treatment.

Why World Cancer Day is Important 

  • Raise Awareness of Cancer: World Cancer Day offers an opportunity to increase awareness of the disease’s impact on people’s lives worldwide. It also serves as a chance to increase knowledge related to the detection, prevention and treatment of the disease. 
  • Inspires Action: On World Cancer Day, everyone everywhere is urged to take up the fight against cancer, including governments, organizations, and local communities. World Cancer Day contributes to the momentum for positive change by drawing attention to the need for increased funding for research, improved access to therapies, and enhanced support services for individuals impacted by cancer.
  • Promotes Solidarity: By raising attention to World Cancer Day, we want to highlight the strength that comes from working together to address the global cancer epidemic. We can all work toward a society in which cancer is not a sickness to fear by becoming informed on the advancements made in its knowledge and treatment.
FAQ's
When is World Cancer Day?

Every year on February 4th, people celebrate World Cancer Day. It will be held on a Sunday in 2024.

What are some common risk factors for cancer that people should be aware of?

Tobacco use, a poor diet, a lack of physical activity, excessive alcohol use, exposure to certain chemicals and pollutants, and hereditary factors are common risk factors. People can choose their lifestyle more intelligently if they are aware of these issues.

What role does a healthy lifestyle play in cancer prevention?

Cancer risk can be greatly decreased by leading a healthy lifestyle that includes eating a balanced diet, exercising frequently, abstaining from tobacco and excessive alcohol use, and managing stress.

How can businesses and workplaces contribute to cancer awareness on World Cancer Day?

Businesses can set up awareness campaigns, offer training resources, and motivate staff members to take part in relevant events. A supportive environment and cancer awareness can also be created by assisting workers who are impacted by the disease and encouraging good work habits.

Are there any resources available for cancer survivors to help them navigate life after treatment?

Yes, there are a lot of options available to help cancer survivors deal with the logistical, emotional, and physical issues that come with finishing treatment, including counseling services, support groups, and survivorship programs. Cancer organizations and healthcare providers can provide information on available resources. 


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Cold Air and Asthma in Winter: Cold weather is a common Asthma trigger. For many people who have asthma, the winter months can be particularly harmful. A person with Asthma has a certain amount of inflammation in these airways all the time. As a result of inflammation, they constrict and obstruct airflow to the lungs. That’s why breathing becomes more difficult for those who have asthma, even when they’re not experiencing a flare-up. Changes in weather and fluctuations in temperature are known to inflame airways and trigger Asthma flares. In those with pre-existing bronchial tube inflammation, the effects of cold weather on breathing can be severe. Dr. Sheetu Singh is a seasoned and compassionate guide for Asthma Management, particularly during the challenging winter season. Her guidance is centered on evidence-based methods and includes specific techniques to reduce triggers and enhance lung health. 

Is Asthma Triggered by Cold Air?

The muscles in the airways of an asthmatic may spasm when they breathe in cold, dry air, despite the airway being forced open. This further irritates the lining of the airways and causes coughing, wheezing and shortness of breath. Asthma symptoms and flare-ups can be brought on by cold air, especially when the air is dry. The dryness of cold air can cause breathing issues for a lot of asthmatics. Cold air accompanied by windy conditions can also trigger symptoms. Dr. Sheetu Singh emphasizes the importance of preventive measures, such as ensuring proper inhaler use, staying indoors during peak pollution hours, and maintaining a warm and humidified environment. 

What are Cold Weather – Induced Asthma Symptoms?

The symptoms of asthma brought on by other factors are the same during cold weather. Asthma symptoms include:

  • Coughing, whether dry or with phlegm.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Wheezing especially when breathing out.
  • Tightness in your chest.

Why is Cold Weather Hard on People with Asthma?

  • Wild Weather: Winter frequently brings cold, dry air, snow, rain, wind, and variations in air pressure, even for those in mild climates. Changes in barometric pressure can cause sinusitis, and mold spores can be stirred up by windy and rainy weather. These may also trigger exacerbations of Asthma. 
  • Illnesses: Flu, colds, and viruses are common in winter and can lead to more inflammation of your airways. These diseases cause the bronchial tube mucus to thicken, which makes breathing more difficult. This can worsen symptoms or cause Asthma flare-ups.
  • Time Spent Indoors: You might stay indoors longer in the cold by keeping the windows closed and turning on the heat. Additionally, you can be more susceptible to respiratory infections, irritants, and allergies indoors. For example, you could be at risk for an Asthma flare if your symptoms are triggered by mold or dander, dust, or cigarette smoke if there’s a smoker in the house.

Can Cold Air Cause an Asthma Attack?

You could have an asthma attack in the winter if you have severe asthma and the cold weather triggers your symptoms. Consult your Asthma action plan to manage Asthma in cold weather. Always get medical help if your symptoms get worse. To keep cold air from causing an Asthma flare:

  • Wear a scarf over your mouth and nose to warm the air before inhaling it. 
  • As soon as symptoms appear, use a short-acting albuterol inhaler to prevent asthma attacks from getting worse.
  • Stay inside as often as you can. You can assist your airways open up by breathing in warmer air. Just make sure you’re in an area free of irritants and allergens indoors. 
  • If you experience symptoms frequently in cold weather, talk with your doctor about a long-term treatment plan.

Is Exercise-Induced Asthma in Cold Weather Real?

It is undoubtedly more difficult to work out outside in the cold. Not only those who have Asthma, but everyone may relate to this. In colder climates, breathing through your nose might be less taxing on your body, but exercising frequently necessitates breathing through your mouth to take in more air. Breathing through your mouth brings the cold, dry air straight to your airways. The air in those bronchial tubes permits the mucus coating them to dry out. This can make symptoms worse or trigger a flare-up of Asthma. If you prefer to exercise outside, or you enjoy Skiing or ice skating, try doing a warm-up before leaving the house. 

In case you suffer from exercise-induced asthma or exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB), your physician can advise using a short-acting albuterol inhaler for 15 to 20 minutes before engaging in physical activity. This pre-treats your airways so they are better prepared for physical activity and cold weather.

How to Handle Asthma in the Winter

When the cold weather aggravates your asthma, what can you do to reduce symptoms? 

  • Wear a scarf and use it to warm the air you’re breathing.
  • Limit outdoor exercise. Work out at home or in the gym.
  • Put humidifiers to use in your house. Make sure they don’t grow mold. 
  • Wash hands frequently. Washing with soap for 20 seconds or using hand sanitizer while out can keep winter illnesses at bay. 
  • Be conscious of your hands. Keep them away from your eyes and face to avoid spreading germs.
  • Obtain the flu shot in the early fall. Remain current with COVID-19 vaccinations. 
  • Limit time with pets if you’re allergic to pet dander. Keep your bedroom pet-free.
  • If mold and dust mites aggravate your symptoms, keep your house dry and cool to prevent their growth.
Is Cold Air Good for Asthma?

Most persons who have asthma should avoid cold air because it irritates their bronchial tubes and exacerbates their symptoms. If you have Asthma, it may be best for you to stay indoors as much as possible during cold winter weather. Incorporate HEPA filters into your ventilation systems and keep an eye on the quality of the air indoors. Keep an eye out for any indications of mold and get rid of it right away. Install dust mite-proof pillows and mattress covers in your bedding. To assist in clearing the air within your home of pet dander and other allergens, think about purchasing an air purifier or air cleaner.

Modern homes have better insulations and windows. They better retain heat and are less drafty. However, this implies that carpets, drapes, furniture, and bedding can retain moisture, which promotes the growth of dust mites. Use dehumidifiers and maintain your home’s humidity below 50% to help prevent the growth of dust mites. When the weather allows, open your windows for one hour per day to reduce humidity in the house.


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Winter Asthma Symptoms and Treatment: Asthma attacks may be more common in the winter for many people. In the winter, people with asthma face two challenges. One difference is that they spend more time indoors. The other factor is the ‘cold weather’.

Indoors, you take in asthma triggers including mold, pet dander, dust mites, and even hearth fires. When you go outside, the cold air could trigger an asthma attack.

Several treatments and preventive practices can assist a person with asthma reduce the impact of chilly air.

This article explains why cold weather can aggravate asthma symptoms and how to identify when symptoms are triggered.

Does Cold Weather Impact Asthma? 

When an asthmatic inhales cold, dry air, the muscles inside the lungs begin to spasm in an attempt to keep the airways open. This irritates the airway lining, leading in wheezing, shortness of breath, and coughing.

Many asthmatics have difficulty breathing due to the dryness of cold air. Symptoms may also be caused by cold air paired with windy conditions. The severity of your asthma increases your chances of being affected by cold air.

Connection Between Asthma and Heart Attack

Asthmatic airways (bronchial tubes) expand and become irritated in reaction to certain stimuli. Swollen airways are narrower and cannot accommodate as much air. As a result, persons with asthma frequently have difficulty catching their breath.

Winter is especially difficult for asthmatics. According to a 2014 Chinese study, hospital admissions for asthma increased over the winter months. In the chilly climate of northern Finland, up to 82 percent of asthmatics experienced shortness of breath when exercising in cold weather.

When you exercise, your body requires extra oxygen, therefore your breathing rate increases. To take in more air, you frequently breathe through your mouth. While blood vessels in your nose warm and humidify the air before it reaches your lungs, air that passes directly through your mouth is chilly and dry.

Exercising outside in chilly weather forces cold air into your airways quickly. It also seems to enhance your chances of getting an asthma episode. What exactly is it about chilly air that causes asthma symptoms?

How Asthma Symptoms Get Affected by Cold Weather?

  • The cold air is dry

A thin film of fluid lines your airways. When you breathe dry air, the fluid in your lungs evaporates quicker than it can be restored. Asthma symptoms develop as dry airways become inflamed and swollen.

Cold air also triggers your airways to generate histamine, the same chemical your body produces during an allergic attack. Wheezing and other asthma symptoms are exacerbated by histamine.

  • The cold promotes mucus production

Your airways are also lined with a layer of protective mucus, which aids in the removal of harmful particles. Your body creates more mucus in cold temperatures, but it is thicker and stickier than usual. The additional mucus increases your chances of getting a cold or another infection.

  • You Get Sick and Prevent Outsides during Winters 

During the winter, colds, flu, and other respiratory illnesses are more common. These infections have also been linked to an increase in asthma symptoms.

Cold air can also cause you to stay indoors, where dust, mold, and pet dander thrive. Some people develop asthma symptoms when exposed to these allergens.

How to Manage Asthma in Cold Weather?

If a person has an asthma attack brought on by cold weather, they should use their short-acting inhaler first to loosen and open up the airways.

This inhaler often contains albuterol, a beta agonist. If a person is going outside in cooler weather, they should always bring their inhaler with them.

Next, a person suffering from cold-induced asthma should try to get to a warmer environment as soon as feasible.

After several minutes of breathing in warmer air, the airways should begin to open up and symptoms should subside swiftly.

If a person has these symptoms on a frequent basis, they should consult their doctor. Long-term therapy, such as a long-acting bronchodilator, may be prescribed by the doctor.

Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction is the medical name for when exercise causes asthma symptoms. A doctor may also give leukotriene receptor inhibitors to decrease this impact.

Working to control symptoms and minimize the amount of attacks for anyone with asthma can help prevent symptoms from developing in cold weather.

Consult Dr. Sheetu Singh

You must know that, Doctor Sheetu Singh is one best pulmonologist and allergist to treat your problems. She is experienced, and even has proof with records of healthy lives built by her incredible treatment. Consult with her, and don’t let asthma affect your life anymore.


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How to Treat Asthma Triggered by Cold Weather: During the winter, breathing cold air can aggravate asthma symptoms. If you have Asthma, you may find that your symptoms are affected by the seasons. Walking outside during colder months can exacerbate breathing difficulties. Furthermore, exercising in the cold can exacerbate symptoms like wheezing and coughing even more quickly.

What’s the Connection Between Cold Weather and Asthma?

When you have asthma, certain triggers cause your bronchial tubes, which are responsible for your airways, to expand and become irritated. Swollen airways are narrower and can’t take in as much air. This explains why breathing difficulties are a common symptom of asthma in humans. Winter is a particularly challenging season for asthmatic individuals. According to a 2014 Chinese study, hospital admissions for asthma increased in the winter. Furthermore, up to 82% of asthmatics who exercised in the chilly northern environment of Finland reported having trouble breathing. 

When you work out, your body needs more oxygen, so your breathing speeds up. If you want to breathe in more air, you frequently do it through your mouth. Direct airflow through your mouth leaves the air chilly and dry, whereas air passing through your nose has blood vessels that warm and humidify the air before it reaches your lungs. Exercising outdoors in cold weather delivers cold air rapidly to your airways. It also seems to make you more likely to get an asthma attack.

Why Does Cold Air Affect Asthma Symptoms?

Asthma symptoms are exacerbated by cold air for various reasons.

1. Cold Air is Dry: Your airways are lined with a thin layer of fluid. That fluid evaporates faster than it can be replenished when you breathe in dry air. Asthma symptoms develop when dry airways become inflamed and swollen. 

The same molecule that your body produces during an allergy attack, called histamine, is also released into your airways by cold air. Histamine triggers wheezing and other Asthma symptoms. 

2. Cold Increases Mucus: Additionally, a coating of protective mucus lines your airways, aiding in the removal of harmful particles. In cold weather, your body produces more mucus, but it’s stickier and thicker than normal. Your risk of getting a cold or other infection is increased by the excess mucus.

3. You’re More Likely to Get Sick or be Indoors When it’s Cold: Winter is when colds, the flu, and other respiratory illnesses are most common. It is also known that these infections trigger asthmatic symptoms. Cold air can also drive you indoors, where mold, dust, and pet dander flourish. For certain people, these allergens cause asthma symptoms.

What Precautions Should People with Asthma Take?

Before winter approaches, make sure your asthma is under control. After creating an asthma action plan with Dr. Sheetu Singh, take the prescribed medications. You may take medicine every day (for long-term control) or just when you need it (for quick relief). Medications known as long-term controllers are taken daily to treat symptoms of Asthma. They include: 

  • Inhaled corticosteroids—like fluticasone—are found in Flovent Diskus and Flovent HFA.
  • long-acting beta-agonists, including Serevent Diskus Salmeterol.
  • Leukotriene modifiers, such as Montelukast (Singulair).

Only take quick-relief medications when necessary, like before working out in the cold.  Anticholinergics and short-acting Bronchodilators are examples of these drugs.  

How Can You Avoid Asthma Attacks in the Cold?

Try to stay inside during extremely low temperatures, especially if it’s below 10°F (-12.2°C), to avoid asthma episodes. If you do have to go outside, cover your mouth and nose with a scarf to warm the air before you breathe it in. Here are a few other tips: 

  • During the winter, consume more fluids. This may make the mucus in your lungs thinner, making it simpler for your body to expel. 
  • Get your flu vaccine early in the fall.
  • Try to avoid anyone who appears to be sick. 
  • To get rid of dust mites, wash your blankets and sheets in hot water once a week.
  • To get rid of indoor allergens, dust and vacuum your house frequently. 

Here are some ways to prevent Asthma attacks when you exercise outdoors in cold weather:

  • Before you work out, give your inhaler a 15 to 30-minute run. This facilitates simpler breathing by widening your airways. 
  • In case you experience an Asthma attack, always keep an inhaler on hand. 
  • Before working out, spend at least ten to fifteen minutes warming up.
  • Wear a scarf or mask over your face to warm the air you breathe in. 

What Else Can Cause an Attack?

One of the major asthma triggers is the cold. Additional triggers for your symptoms could be: 

  • Strong scents.
  • Allergens such as mold, pollen, animal dander, and dust mites.
  • Tobacco smoke.
  • Stress.
  • Exercise.
  • Bacterial or viral infections. 

What are the Symptoms of an Asthma Attack?

When you have symptoms like these, you know you’re experiencing an asthma attack:

  • Coughing.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Pain or tightness in your chest.
  • Wheezing.
  • Trouble speaking.

What Can You Do if You’re Having an Asthma Attack?

Consult Dr. Sheetu Singh and the asthma action plan you created if you begin to wheeze or feel out of breath. Take your quick-acting medication and get medical help right away if your symptoms are so bad that you are unable to speak. You may need to stay in observation until your breathing stabilizes. Additional general advice on what to do in the event of an asthma attack is provided below:

  • Utilizing a quick-acting rescue inhaler, take two to six puffs. Your airways should be cleared by the medication, making breathing simpler for you.
  • Nebulizers can potentially be a viable substitute for inhalers. A nebulizer is a device that creates a tiny mist for you to breathe in while taking your medication. 
  • If your symptoms aren’t severe but they don’t improve with the first few puffs from your inhaler, wait 20 minutes and then take another dose. 
  • Give your doctor a call once you’re feeling better. Your quick-acting medication may need to be taken every few hours for a couple of days.

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How to Manage Asthma in Winter :- If you live on the East Coast and have asthma, you probably already know how the cold affects your asthma symptoms. The daytime highs in Connecticut are often around 30°F, making winters there somewhat cold. 

The best strategy to avoid flare-ups and maintain well-controlled asthma is to understand how cold weather affects asthma. Wintertime can make asthma management a bit tough. Asthma sufferers find the winter months in Manchester and the surrounding areas to be especially challenging. 

People who have asthma are prone to get flare-ups during the cold. We offer practical advice on managing your asthma over the winter months in this post.

Understanding cold weather and asthma symptoms

People who have asthma have sensitive bronchial tubes that are stimulated by cold air, among other things. The lining of your airways may get irritated when the outside temperature drops and you breathe in cold air, leading to symptoms like wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.

Winter is a more likely season to cause flare-ups for asthmatic individuals than other seasons. Symptoms of cold air might arise, particularly in dry and windy situations. The more severe your asthma is, the more likely it is that exposure to cold air can aggravate your symptoms.

Limit indoor triggers

Asthma sufferers face not only the actual cold but also the added challenge of spending more time indoors throughout the winter. Mold and dust mites are two common indoor asthma causes for many people. 

Your asthma may worsen if you spend more time indoors where allergens are present. If you suffer from indoor allergies, take preventative measures in advance of winter, such as installing HEPA filters to reduce allergens in your house or, if you have a dust mite allergy, covering your pillows and mattress with dust mite coverings. 

Keep warm

Winter is not the appropriate season for those with asthma to go outside with inadequate clothing. Asthma flare-ups can be prevented by staying warm. Depending on the outside temperature, it makes sense to bundle up. Wear a warm coat, gloves, a hat, and a scarf during the winter. 

Wearing a mask or scarf over your mouth and nose can also be helpful. By doing this, you reduce the chance of irritating your airway by helping to warm the chilly air as you inhale.

Avoid mouth breathing

Some people have a propensity of breathing via their mouths. But when it’s chilly outside, it’s crucial that you breathe through your nose if you have asthma. When it’s chilly outside, breathing through your lips lets the cold air rush into your lungs, which might set off an asthma attack. 

The nasal cavity’s structures warm and humidify the air as it passes through when you breathe in through your nostrils. Your airway irritation risk is reduced since the air is warmer when it enters your lungs.  

Follow a winter asthma management plan

In order to effectively manage your asthma during the colder months, preparation is essential. Together with your provider, develop a winter asthma plan.

It’s wise to arrange routine checks in addition to adhering to your winter asthma plan. This allows your doctor the chance to keep an eye on you, make sure your medication is effective, and make sure your asthma is under control for the winter.

Call us to make an appointment with Dr. Sheetu Singh  or make an online reservation right now to find out more about the best ways to manage asthma in the winter.

What can you do if you’re having an asthma attack?

Consult your doctor and the asthma action plan you created if you begin to wheeze or feel out of breath.

In the event that your symptoms are so bad that you are unable to talk, take your quick-acting medication and get help right away. It could be necessary to keep you under observation until your breathing becomes steady.

Other general recommendations on what to do in the event of an asthma attack are as follows:

  • Utilizing a quick-acting rescue inhaler, take two to six puffs. Your airways should be cleared by the medication, making breathing simpler for you.
  • Nebulizers can potentially be a viable substitute for inhalers. A nebulizer is a device that creates a tiny mist for you to breathe in while taking your medication.
  • After taking your inhaler for a few puffs, if your symptoms aren’t getting better but you still need to wait 20 minutes before taking another dose.
  • Dial your doctor as soon as you feel better. For a day or two, you might need to continue taking your quick-acting medication every few hours.

Takeaway for people with Asthma

After taking your medication and getting inside out of the cold, your asthma episode should go away.

You might need to visit your doctor to have your asthma action plan reviewed if your symptoms don’t get better or if they seem to grow worse every time you’re outside in the cold. They might advise you to switch medications or think of alternative ways to manage your illness.


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Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults: Lung abscess and, in rare cases, empyema are potential CAP side effects. In Empyema, a collection of pluses builds in the space between the chest wall and the lung. You usually need drainage and antibiotics to treat it. A CT scan can often help to diagnose these problems.

Death and respiratory failure are other possible complications. This occurs more frequently in older adults or people who have significant health issues. 

What is Community-Acquired Pneumonia?

Pneumonia is a type of lung infection. It can result in symptoms including difficulty breathing. Community-acquired Pneumonia (CAP) is an infection that occurs in a group of people. It doesn’t happen in nursing homes, hospitals or other healthcare centers. A component of your respiratory system is your lungs. This system eliminates waste carbon dioxide while supplying your blood with new oxygen. When you breathe in air through your mouth and nose, it reaches the tiny air sacs of the lung through a series of tubes, your blood receives oxygen from here. Carbon dioxide flows out from the blood into the alveoli and you then breathe it out. 

Numerous germs can develop inside your body and lead to illness. Invading germs of a certain sort can result in Pneumonia and lung infection. This could result in poor respiratory system function. For instance, oxygen may not be able to enter your bloodstream as quickly. That can cause shortness of breath. Pneumonia may cause death if your body is unable to obtain enough oxygen to survive. 

Sometimes these germs can transmitted from person to person. You may breathe the germs into your lungs when a person with one of these infections sneezes or coughs. If your immune system doesn’t first eradicate the pathogens, they may develop and result in Pneumonia.

CAP can develop as a result of infection with several bacteria. These include viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi. Pneumonia symptoms can range from minor to severe. In adults, CAP is more common during the winter months. However, it can have an impact on people of all ages.

What Causes Community-Acquired Pneumonia?

A vast variety of germs can cause pneumonia. But some do CAP more frequently than others. Worldwide, the bacteria streptococcus pneumoniae is typically to blame for CAP in adults. A few additional typical microorganisms that cause CAP include:

  • Mycoplasma Pneumonia.
  • Hemophilus Influenza.
  • Legionella.
  • Chlamydia Pneumonia.
  • Staphylococcus Aureus.
  • Gram-negative Bacilli.

The primary viral cause of CAP is the flu (Influenza) virus. Additionally, bacterial pneumonia is more likely to develop if you have the flu. This type is often worse than viral Pneumonia. Other types of viruses can also cause CAP, such as Echovirus, Parainfluenza virus, Coxsackievirus and Adenovirus. The majority of CAP episodes are probably brought on by viruses. Parasites and Fungi may also cause CAP. 

What are the Symptoms of Community-Acquired Pneumonia? 

CAP symptoms frequently appear suddenly. These symptoms may include: 

  • Coughing
  • Heavy sputum
  • Shortness of breath
  • Fever and chills
  • Upper belly (abdomen) pain with vomiting, nausea or diarrhea
  • Chest pain that is worse when you cough or breath

The other symptoms include a fast breathing rate, fast heartbeat or certain sounds on a lung exam. 

Who is at Risk For Community-Acquired Pneumonia? 

Your risk for CAP may increase due to certain factors. Some of these are:

  • Smoking
  • The weak immune system brought on by drug use or a medical condition like cancer, diabetes or HIV
  • There are further lung conditions like Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
  • Other health problems such as Kidney failure
  • Using specific medications such as Proton pump Inhibitors
  • Heavy alcohol use 

Additionally, if you come into contact with other pneumonia sufferers, your risk increases.

How is Community-Acquired Pneumonia Diagnosed?

Your doctor will inquire about your more recent symptoms and previous medical issues. Lab tests can be very helpful in diagnosing CAP. Dr. Sheetu Singh might recommend some tests: 

  • Blood tests to check for oxygen and infection status of your blood
  • Chest X-ray, which often confirms the diagnosis
  • Tests to determine whether a germ is present in your sputum
  • Blood cultures are used to check for the presence of germs in the blood.

How is Community-Acquired Pneumonia Treated?

If you have a serious case of pneumonia, you probably need to spend some time in the hospital. If your symptoms are moderate, you can usually get treatment at home. Antibiotics are a key treatment for bacterial CAP. Dr. Sheetu Singh will likely start you on this medicine even before identifying the type of bacteria. The kind of antibiotic you receive will depend on the bacteria that are known to exist in your area as well as any other health issues you may have. 

If you are getting treatment at home, If you are receiving treatment at home, you’ll probably need to take an antibiotic via mouth for 5–7 days. You will typically begin to feel better a few days after beginning treatment. If you need to stay in the hospital, you will also need Antibiotics specific to your case. You might also require extra assistance, such as:

  • Breathing treatments
  • Extra oxygen
  • Fluids, if you are dehydrated
  • For a severe case, respiratory support such as a ventilator is recommended.

Most patients begin to benefit from treatment within a few days. A small percentage of patients receiving hospital care do not improve during this period. You could require a different antibiotic or therapy for CAP problems if your symptoms don’t go away.


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A communicable disease spreads from one person or animal to another or from a surface to a person. They are caused by pathogens, which include bacteria and viruses. Colds and the flu are examples of infectious diseases. Communicable diseases can be transmitted through contact with insect bites, bodily fluids, water, foods, contaminated surfaces, or through the air. People sometimes refer to communicable diseases as ‘infectious’ or ‘transmissible’ diseases. Pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, cause communicable diseases.

Symptoms of Communicable Disease

Once a pathogen gets into a person’s body, it frequently starts to replicate. The person may then start to exhibit symptoms. Depending on the illness, symptoms can change. Some individuals won’t show any symptoms at all. They are yet capable of spreading the infection. Certain symptoms arise directly from the infection causing harm to the body’s cells. Others result from the immune system’s reaction to the illness. Some communicable diseases may be mild, and symptoms pass after a few days. Nonetheless, a few may be dangerous and even fatal. The degree of symptoms may differ based on an individual’s immune system and general health. 

Causes of Communicable Disease

After contracting the pathogen, an individual may become ill with a communicable disease. This could occur via:

  • Direct contact with a person carrying the pathogen.
  • receiving pathogen-laden particles in the air from someone else’s sneeze or cough.
  • Contact with bodily fluids containing pathogens.
  • Receiving a bite from an insect or an animal carrying the pathogen.
  • Consuming contaminated foods or water.

Types of Communicable Disease 

Infection is caused by four primary types of pathogens: bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoa. 

  • Viruses: Viruses are microscopic pathogens that carry genetic material. They don’t have the intricate structure of a cell, in contrast to other infections. They need to get into the cells of other living things to multiply. They enter the cell and replicate themselves using its equipment. 
  • Bacteria: Bacteria are microscopic, single-celled organisms. They are found inside the human body as well as in practically every other ecosystem on Earth. While many bacteria are harmless, some are necessary for the body’s operation. On the other hand, illnesses caused by bacteria can harm the body.
  • Fungi: Among the group of organisms known as fungi are molds, mushrooms, and yeasts. There are millions of distinct fungi with verified sources. Only about 300, though, are known to cause serious problems. Fungal infections can occur anywhere in the body. However, they commonly affect the mucus membranes and skin. 
  • Protozoa: Protozoa are tiny organisms that are usually made up of just one cell. Certain protozoa are parasitic, which means they feed on the nutrients of other organisms while existing on or inside of them. Numerous diseases can be caused by parasitic protozoa.

Common Communicable Disease 

Common bacterial, viral, protozoa and fungal diseases include:

  • Rhinoviruses: A class of viruses known as rhinoviruses is the most frequent cause of the common cold. A rhinovirus can be contracted by breathing in contaminated droplets from another person’s cough or sneeze. Similar to this, persons can spread rhinoviruses by touching their mouth, nose, or eyes after coming into contact with contaminated objects or surfaces. A cold may cause the following symptoms:
    • Sore throat.
    • A stuffy or runny nose.
    • Headache.
  • Coronaviruses: A broad class of viruses that impact the respiratory system is known as coronaviruses (Trusted Source). The SARS-CoV-2 virus belongs to this family. While some coronaviruses might cause more serious consequences, others can only cause symptoms similar to the typical cold and flu.
  • Influenza: The respiratory system is attacked by influenza viruses. Influenza viruses can be contracted in the same manner as rhinoviruses. Some potential symptoms include:
    • Stuffy or runny nose.
    • Fever or chills.
    • Cough.
    • Sore throat.
    • Muscle or body aches.
    • Headaches.
    • Fatigue. 
  • HIV: The host’s immune system is attacked by HIV. The person is now more susceptible to illnesses and infections. HIV can be transmitted to an individual by blood or other bodily fluids that contain the virus. The only way a person can be certain they have HIV is to have an HIV test. Even though there is no known cure for HIV, drugs can help manage the infection or render it undetectable. HIV can progress to AIDS in the absence of such treatment. The symptoms of HIV may develop gradually. They can include: 
    • Chills.
    • Fever.
    • Mouth sores.
    • Rash.
    • Sore throat.
    • Muscle aches.
    • Swollen lymph nodes.
    • Night sweats.
    • Fatigue.
  • Salmonella and Escherichia Coli: A non-typhoidal different species of bacteria can infect the digestive tract, including Salmonella and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Typhoid is also caused by Salmonella typhi, a different type of salmonella. They are usually spread by polluted water supplies, unwashed fruits and vegetables, undercooked meats and eggs, and other foods. Salmonella can also spread through contact with live animals, through person-to-person contact, and including chickens. Some symptoms of these infections include:
    • Diarrhea.
    • Abdominal cramps.
    • Fever.
    • Headache.
  • Tuberculosis: The bacterial infection known as tuberculosis (TB) mostly affects the lungs. A person who has tuberculosis (TB) can infect others by coughing or sneezing microscopic droplets, or “aerosols,” into their air. These are the symptoms that it could cause:
    • Loss of Appetite.
    • A cough continuing for more than 3 weeks.
    • Fever.
    • Chills,
    • Unintentional weight loss.
    • Night sweats.
  • Ringworm: A typical fungus that infects the skin is ringworm. A rash that resembles a ring is the hallmark sign of ringworm. It may be itchy, dry, or scaly. Ringworm can spread to other bodily areas if left untreated. People may contract ringworm through: 
    • intimate interaction with a ringworm sufferer.
    • Sharing bedding, towels, or other personal items with a person who has ringworm.
    • close connection with ringworm-affected animals, usually cats.
  • Athlete’s Foot: A common fungal illness that affects the skin on the feet is called athlete’s foot. It usually results in white spots between the toes that are painful or irritating. Direct contact with an infected person or surfaces contaminated by the fungus can result in the transmission of athlete’s foot to others. For instance, an individual might contract an athlete’s foot after walking barefoot in showers, locker rooms, or swimming pools.
  • Plasmodium: Malaria is a tropical disease caused by the protozoa of the Plasmodium genus. The main way that the parasite spreads is by mosquito bites (Trusted Source). Malaria can be life-threatening, without proper treatment. Vaccination programs are also effectively protecting people from malaria fatalities. Malaria causes symptoms such as: 
    • Vomiting.
    • Headaches.
    • Fever and chills.
    • Muscle pains.
    • Diarrhea.
  • Lyme Disease: Black-legged ticks can transmit the potentially deadly Lyme disease to humans. It is the most prevalent carrier-spread illness in the US according to Trusted Source. The majority of instances of Lyme disease are caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. However, the illness could also be brought on by the germs of Borrelia Mayonii. Lyme disease can spread to the heart, joints, and nervous system if a person does not treat it.  Symptoms of Lym disease include:
    • Fatigue.
    • Headache.
    • Skin rash.
    • Fever. 

How To Prevent Transmission 

The following actions can help people lower their risk of coming into contact with or spreading disease-causing pathogens:

  • Wash their hands regularly and thoroughly.
  • cleaning surfaces in your house frequently, especially the areas around doors and food.
  • Disinfecting personal items such as phones.
  • Cooking eggs, meats, and other foods thoroughly.
  • Practicing good hygiene when handling and preparing food.
  • Avoid touching wild animals.
  • Avoid eating spoiled food.
  • when visiting places where malaria is a danger, using antimalarial drugs.
  • Receiving available vaccinations.
  • Check for ticks and other parasites. 

Treatment For Communicable Diseases 

Certain contagious illnesses simply produce minor symptoms that go away on their own. Others might result in serious side effects or even death. Patients require different treatments depending on the disease process and clinical presentation. Consulting with Dr. Sheetu Singh for a communicable disease is a prudent and reassuring step toward optimal health management.  Her patient-centered and empathetic approach guarantees that each client receives customized care based on their particular situation.  During the consultation, Dr. Sheetu Singh conducts a thorough assessment, considering both medical history and current symptoms, to formulate an accurate diagnosis. 

  • Viral Infections: Vaccines are one of the best ways to avoid certain viral illnesses. There are numerous varieties of vaccinations. A version of the virus is administered to a recipient of a vaccination. In response, the immune system creates antibodies that will eventually destroy an active strain of the virus. If a person has a virus, they may require Antiviral medications to keep the virus under control. 
  • Bacterial Infections: The severity of bacterial infections can vary from moderate to fatal. Antibiotics may be necessary for the treatment of a bacterial infection to help manage the infection. These medications can aid in the destruction of bacteria or inhibit their growth so that the immune system can fight them. A person should only ever take Antibiotics on medical recommendations. 
  • Fungal Infections: In rare instances, intravenous medicine may be necessary for treating a severe or persistent fungal infection, in addition to prescribed antifungal drugs. Athlete’s foot and ringworm, for example, can be treated using over-the-counter topical ointments.

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Nebulizers and Inhalers are tools that help kids take their Asthma medicines. Most asthma medications must be inhaled into the lungs for them to function as intended. Nebulizers are devices that change liquid medication into a mist for children to inhale. Often, inhalers—also known as puffers—dispense the medication as a spray. Some inhalers release the medicine as a fine powder. These tools are effective when used properly. But each has its pros and cons- so consult with Dr. Sheetu Singh about which one is best for your child. 

1. Inhalers 

These compact, portable gadgets spray a dose of medication directly into your lungs. There are three basic types: 

  • Hydrofluoroalkane inhalers (HFA, formerly metered dose inhalers or MDI)
  • Dry powder inhalers (DPI)
  • Soft mist inhalers (SMI)

HFAs contain a liquid medication that you get through an Aerosol spray. The medication is contained in a metering valve-equipped pressurized canister. Breathe in carefully while applying pressure to the inhaler while sealing your lips around the mouthpiece or holding it one to two inches away from your lips. Many people like to use a spacer. The mouthpiece and the medication canister are connected via a hollow plastic tube. Using a spacer facilitates the delivery of the entire drug dose to your lungs.

A DPI is similar to an HFA, but it releases a puff of dry powder instead of a liquid mist. A DPI and a spacer shouldn’t be combined. Inhale quickly and steadily instead by firmly sealing your lips around the DPI inhaler’s mouthpiece. To prevent damp air from getting inside the device and causing the powder to clump, it’s crucial to take the device out of your mouth before exhaling. 

An SMI is a more recent kind of inhaler that gives you a precise dosage in a slow-moving mist to make it easier for you to inhale the medication. You put your lips on the mouthpiece while you hold the device horizontally.  Be careful not to cover the air vents. This kind of equipment actively administers medication without relying on the rate at which you breathe in the inhaled air. Despite sharing a common operating principle, inhalers operate differently. An HFA, for example, should always be shaken before use, yet a DPI should never be shaken. 

2. Nebulizers 

These devices turn a liquid medication into a mist that you breathe in. You maintain a nebulizer at home as they are not particularly portable. The medicine is measured out into a cup for use, and the cup is connected to the machine via tubing. Next, activate it, unwind, and inhale deeply via a mouthpiece or mask as you take in the mist. Depending on the medication, it usually takes 20 minutes or less to inhale the medicine. Before using the nebulizer and mouthpiece or mask again, you must first clean them with water (and occasionally soap). 

How Does an Inhaler Work? 

  • Metered Dose Inhaler (MDI)

A pre-measured spray of asthma medication is released by MDIs. They resemble miniature aerosol cans. A precise “puff” of medication is emitted when the inhaler is squeezed. MDIs require coordination when used on their own. A child needs to be able to inhale and trigger the device simultaneously. If not, the medication can find its way into the mouth as opposed to the lungs. That’s why many doctors recommend attaching the metered dose inhaler to a spacer. 

A spacer functions as a sort of storage tank for asthma medication. On one end, it is attached to the inhaler, and on the other, it is attached to a mouthpiece or mask. The medication remains in the spacer until the user presses down on the inhaler, at which point they can inhale it. Hence, since all they need to “do” is sit and breathe, infants and very young children can take their medications using a metered dose inhaler with a spacer.  It typically takes less than 30 seconds to provide medication to the lungs using a spacer. 

There are counters on certain MDIs that show how many doses are left. To ensure that the inhaler is replaced on schedule, if there isn’t a counter, the number of doses already taken should be kept track of. 

  • Dry Powder Inhalers (DPI)

Dry powder inhalers deliver medicine as a powder. Additionally, the powder is inhaled, but it is not sprayed out. Youngsters must exert greater effort by rapidly and forcefully breathing the powdered medication. Most kids can do this when they’re around 5 to 6 years old. Dr. Sheetu Singh tends to prescribe MDIs more commonly than dry powder inhalers. 

How Does a Nebulizer Work?

A nebulizer is a battery-powered or an electric machine. It usually has four parts:

  • The motor.
  • The mouthpiece or facemask.
  • The cup.
  • Tubing.

The cup, which has tubing connecting it to the motor, is filled with medication. The mouthpiece or facemask is then attached to the cup. The machine emits a mist into the mask when it is turned on. This mist allows the child to breathe. 

Children just need to stay motionless and breathe to get the medication. It usually takes about 5 or 10 minutes to breathe in all the medicine. If a child cries or is uncooperative, they cannot receive all of the prescribed medication. During treatment, it’s important to assist your child be as still and calm as possible. 

What are Nebulizers and Inhalers Used For?

Nebulizers and Inhalers are used to treat lung conditions like COPD and Asthma. They assist in getting medicine into the lungs. Breathing becomes simpler and the airways are opened with the use of inhaled drugs. Medication administered intrapulmonary (IV) facilitates a quicker onset of action compared to oral administration. Inhaling medication also helps lower the risk of many common medication side effects, like upset stomach or nausea. 

You can also use inhalers and nebulizers to prevent or reduce the frequency of your symptoms. For instance, if you have Asthma, you might use an inhaled medication every day to assist in preventing Asthma attacks. If you have COPD, using a nebulizer or inhaler can help you breathe more easily and avoid flare-ups. 

5 Tips For Using Inhaled COPD Medicine 

  • Know how to use it: Inhaled medication is useless if not used properly. Discuss the directions with your physician, pharmacist, or, if you own a nebulizer, a representative of the medical supply company as soon as you receive the prescription. After that, check in sometimes to make sure that you’re still using it properly. 
  • Know when to use it: If your doctor prescribes an inhaler or nebulizer, make sure you understand when to use it. Is it only for times when you have a COPD flare-up? Or do you need it every day?
  • Know how much you need: Always take the medication precisely as directed. Never take more or less than is advised by your physician. Don’t take more medication if it doesn’t assist during a flare-up of your COPD. Instead, seek immediate medical attention. 
  • Know what the drug does: You may require multiple types of inhalation medications. A bronchodilator, which eases the muscles around the airways and permits them to widen, is the most often used treatment for COPD. there are many types of Bronchodilators. Inhaled corticosteroids, which help reduce airway edema, are sometimes prescribed to treat COPD in certain patients. Some of these medications are short-acting. Others are long-acting, and some kick in quickly, while others take time to work. 

What are The Side Effects of a Nebulizer VS. Inhaler? 

Nebulizer and inhaler side effects are typically not too dissimilar. This is so because inhalers and nebulizers are gadgets rather than prescription drugs. The drug breathed with the device primarily determines the negative effects. For example, an Albuterol nebulizer is expected to have the same side effects as an Albuterol inhaler. Albuterol side effects include rapid heartbeat, sore throat, and Tremors. A fungal infection in the mouth known as oral thrush can be brought on by corticosteroid-containing nebulizers or inhalers. If you take one of these drugs via inhalation, your doctor may advise you to rinse your mouth to help avoid this side effect. 

However, the face mask that comes with many nebulizers can raise the risk of unique side effects. During a treatment, the nebulizer mist may occasionally adhere to your skin, nose, or eyes. This could then cause side effects in these areas. Nebulizer parts must also be cleaned regularly to avoid the accumulation of bacteria or fungi. Infections may result from neglecting to clean them. 

Can You Use a Nebulizer and Rescue Inhalers?

Nebulized drugs occasionally have the same components as rescue inhalers. You wouldn’t utilize them in tandem in this scenario. For instance, you normally wouldn’t use an albuterol rescue inhaler and nebulizer simultaneously. You may be more susceptible to adverse consequences as a result. 

If your nebulizer contains a different medication than your rescue inhaler, you might be instructed to use them both. Dr. Sheetu Singh will give you instructions about using an inhaler and nebulizer together if that’s what they recommend.


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Why Asthma is Worse in Winter: For Asthma sufferers, winter can be the most difficult time of the year. Sudden changes in the weather and dry, cold air can irritate your respiratory tract, leading to an increase in mucus production.  Being inside doesn’t always help because staying inside might exacerbate respiratory conditions like the flu and colds. All things considered, the winter months may be a formula for asthma flare-ups, resulting in excruciating symptoms that may spiral out of hand.

Most Asthma sufferers know exactly what their triggers are- illness, environmental allergies, or temperature changes, and many report their symptoms ramp up during the winter months. You don’t have to endure through the entire season, though. Learn about easy things you may do to prevent your symptoms when the weather becomes cold. If you ever need immediate care, simply consult with Dr. Sheetu Singh, she trained to evaluate and treat Asthma attacks in both children and adults. 

Why is Asthma Worse in the Colder Months?

There are several reasons why wintertime asthma symptoms could worsen. It’s likely due to one or more of the following:

  • Dry Outside Air: Your lungs airways are shielded by a liquid layer. The fluid layer evaporating in the cold air causes irritation and inflammation in your airways.
  • Respiratory Illness: Your airways also have a protective layer of mucus. This coating of mucus can thicken in the cold, increasing your risk of respiratory infections such as the flu or common cold. These infections may lead to swelling and irritation of your airways, which trigger Asthma symptoms. 
  • Exercise: A walk in the park is healthy, right? Yes, but activity demands a larger capacity for the lungs. Breathing in cold air while walking can cause constriction of your airways, leading to symptoms like dyspnea and cough.

Why is Winter Worse for Those with Asthma?

Cold weather is a typical and well-known trigger for Asthma. For someone with asthma, breathing in dry, cold air will irritate their lung lining and result in spasms. Additionally, the lungs and nasal cavities create more mucus in cold air, which results in coughing and the formation of phlegm. Furthermore, wintertime usually means an increase in respiratory viruses, all of which can be asthma triggers. Additionally, asthmatic patients have been particularly heavily struck by the rise in COVID-19, RSV, flu, and common cold infections this year. While it might seem like staying inside is the answer, that is a short-term solution. You are exposed to more allergens than you realize indoors from mold, dust mites, and dampness to dry, forced air from heating systems and pet allergens. 

Are Asthma Symptoms Different in the Winter than in Other Months?

The symptoms of asthma throughout the winter are identical to those during the summer. The distinction is that during the winter, you might notice that the symptoms are worse than normal, harder to manage, or happen more frequently. Look for: 

  • Coughing.
  • Chest Pain.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Wheezing.
  • Tightness in the chest.

What are the Some Tips on Preventing Asthma Attacks Triggered by Cold Weather?

If you have asthma, you are already aware that the best course of action is preventive. Go back to the basics:

  • To stay hydrated, consume lots of water, broth-based soups, and decaffeinated tea. 
  • Wash your hands often in water and soap to prevent respiratory illnesses such as the flu or cold.
  • Dress warmly when you go out. Keep gloves, a scarf, and an extra jacket in your vehicle just in case.
  • When you’re outside, inhale via your nose. The air is warmed by your nasal passages before entering your lungs.
  •  Get the flu vaccine, which will lower your risk of getting this year flu.
  • Always keep your inhaler close at hand.
  • If you typically work out outside, look for other places to work out. Verify that there is adequate air circulation in the area where you exercise.
  • When not in use, attempt to keep any indoor fireplaces empty. Stay away from outdoor firepits or take a comfortable seat away.
  • Use a humidifier indoors, especially at night when you sleep.
  • Do not skip your daily dose, or keep up with your Asthma medications and refill them.

What Type of Treatments may be Given for Uncontrolled Asthma Symptoms?

You could have additional symptoms like anxiety, a racing heartbeat, and rapid breathing while your asthma is at its worst. You may be given treatments such as Bronchodilators and oxygen therapy. These are medications that facilitate better breathing and widen airways. Steroids might also be administered to you to reduce the inflammation in your airways.

Are There More Advanced Treatments for Severe Uncontrolled Asthma Symptoms? 

Biologics are medications used in advanced asthma therapies that are derived from natural sources. These drugs help by reducing your body’s reaction to Asthma triggers and controlling inflammation. Bronchial Thermoplasty can be a possibility if steroids or other treatments are not working to control your asthma. Dr. Sheetu Singh uses an electrode to heat the inside of your airways. This process helps relax the airways to assist you in breathing more easier.

5 Ways to Avoid Asthma Attacks During Cold Weather

If you live on the East Coast and have asthma, you probably already know how the cold affects your asthma symptoms. The daytime highs in Connecticut are often around 30°F, making winters there somewhat cold. 

  1. Understanding Cold Weather and Asthma Symptoms: Asthma sufferers have sensitive bronchial tubes that are stimulated by several stimuli, including cold air. When the outdoor temperature drops and you inhale cold air, it can irritate the lining of your airways and cause symptoms such as wheezing, coughing and shortness of breath. Winter is a more likely season to cause flare-ups for asthmatic individuals than other seasons.
  2. Limit Indoor Triggers: Asthma sufferers face not only the actual cold but also the added challenge of spending more time indoors throughout the winter. If you suffer from indoor allergies, take preventative measures in advance of winter, such as installing HEPA filters to reduce allergens in your house or, if you have a dust mite allergy, covering your pillows and mattress with dust mite coverings. 
  3. Keep Warm: For individuals with Asthma, winter isn’t the time to leave home undressed. Asthma flare-ups can be prevented by staying warm. Depending on the outside temperature, it makes sense to bundle up. During winter months, wear a scarf, hat, warm coat, and gloves. Wearing a mask or scarf over your mouth and nose can also be helpful. 
  4. Avoid Mouth Breathing: Some people have a propensity to breath via their mouths. But when it’s cold outside, you must breathe through your nose if you have asthma. Breathing through your mouth during cold weather allows the cold air to rush into your lungs, which can trigger an Asthma attack. The nasal cavity’s structures warm and humidify the air as it passes through when you breathe in via your nostrils.
  5. Follow a Winter Asthma Management Plan: The best way to manage your asthma during the winter months is to be prepared. Create a winter asthma plan in close collaboration with your provider. In addition to following your winter Asthma plan, it’s also a good idea to have regular checkups. 

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Malaria Disease: Malaria is caused by parasites that enter your body through the bite of an infected mosquito. This sometimes fatal disease is found in hot, humid regions of the world, such as Africa, Malaria is a serious disease that spreads when you’re bitten by a mosquito infected by tiny parasites. Malaria parasites are injected into the bloodstream by the insects during their bites. Not a virus or a particular kind of bacteria, rather parasites are the source of Malaria. If it isn’t treated, Malaria can cause severe health problems such as brain damage, trouble breathing, seizures, organ failure, and death.

World health initiatives provide bed nets sprayed with insecticide to keep people safe from mosquito bites and preventive medications to lower the number of malaria cases. According to the World Health Organization, children who live in nations where malaria cases are common are advised to receive the malaria vaccine. 

How Common is Malaria?

Malaria is common in tropical areas where it’s humid or hot. There were 627,000 Malaria-related deaths worldwide in 2020, out of 241 million recorded cases of the disease. Most of these occurrences take place in South Asia and Africa. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that this infectious disease spread by mosquitoes affects millions of people annually. The bulk of malaria cases and accompanying deaths occur in Sub-Saharan Africa, which is where the majority of the burden falls.

Where Does Malaria Usually Occur?

Malaria is a global disease that is particularly common in developing nations and regions with warm temperatures and heavy humidity, such as:

  • Central and South America.
  • Africa.
  • Dominican Republic Haiti and other areas in the Caribbean.
  • Eastern Europe. 
  • South and Southeast Asia.
  • Islands in the Central and South Pacific Ocean.

Who Might Get Malaria?

Malaria can strike anyone, but its prevalence is higher in African residents than in other populations. Older people, young children, and those who are pregnant have an increased risk of dying from Malaria. Individuals who lack access to healthcare and live in poverty are at a higher risk of developing medical complications. 

Nearly all of the people who die from Malaria are little children, and more than 90% of Malaria deaths happen in Africa. In 2020, children under the age of five accounted for over 80% of the Malaria deaths that occurred in the region. 

Signs and Symptoms of Malaria

As Malaria gets worse, it can cause Jaundice(yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes), and Anemia. Cerebral malaria is the most severe type of malaria that can lead to a coma. A few persons with malaria go through cycles of “attacks.” Shivering and chills are typically the first symptoms of an attack, which are then followed by a high fever, sweating, and a return to normal temperature. After being bitten by an infected mosquito, signs and symptoms of malaria usually appear a few weeks later. However, some types of Malaria parasites can lie dormant in your body for up to a year.

Approximately 15% of infant deaths and almost 20% of adult deaths are of this sort. Signs and symptoms of Malaria are similar to flu symptoms. They include:

  • Chills that shake your whole body.
  • Sweating and fever.
  • Fatigue.
  • Headache and muscle aches.
  • Chest pain, breathing problems, and cough.

When do Symptoms Begin if You’re Infected with Malaria?

Symptoms of malaria often manifest 10 days to 1 month following infection. The severity of the symptoms varies with the type of parasite. It can take a year for some people to experience symptoms from a mosquito bite. Sometimes, parasites can survive in the body for years without showing any signs. Depending on the kind of parasite, some malaria forms may recur. The parasites are inactive in your liver and then are released into your bloodstream after years. When the parasites start to circulate, the symptoms reappear. 

Causes of Malaria? 

A mosquito gets infected when it bites a person who has malaria. An infection is spread to the other person’s bloodstream when that insect bites them. There, the parasites multiply. Humans can contract malaria from five different types of parasites. Rarely, pregnant malaria patients may pass on the disease to their unborn child either before or during delivery. Although it is unusual, malaria can be spread by hypodermic needles, organ transplants, and blood transfusions. 

How is Malaria Diagnosed? 

In addition to examining you, Dr. Sheetu Singh will inquire about your medical history and symptoms. It’s critical to let your provider know which recent nations you visited so they can accurately assess your risk. She will take a sample of your blood and send it to a lab to see if you have Malaria parasites. The type of parasite causing your symptoms will also be identified by the blood test, which will inform your healthcare professional if you have malaria. Dr. Sheetu Singh will use this information to determine the right treatment. 

How is Malaria Treated?

Treating malaria as soon as feasible is crucial. Your doctor will recommend drugs to eradicate the malaria parasite. Certain parasites are resistant to medications used to treat malaria. Some drugs are given in combination with other drugs. How long and what kind of treatment you take depends on the kind of infection you have. Antimalarial drugs include:

  • Drugs containing artemisinins (artesunate and artemether). If an artemisinin combination medication is available, it is the most effective treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria.
  • Atovaquone (Mepron®).
  • Chloroquine. Some parasites are resistant to this medication.
  • Doxycycline (Doxy-100®, Monodox®, Oracea®).
  • Mefloquine. 
  • Primaquine.
  • Quinine. 

What are The Side Effects of Medications to Treat Malaria?

Antimalarial drugs can cause side effects. Antimalarial medications may interfere with other medications, so be sure to let your provider know about any other medications you take. Depending on the medication, side effects may include:

  • Headaches.
  • Increased sensitivity to sunlight.
  • Gastrointestinal (GI) issues such as Diarrhea, and Nausea.
  • Vision problems and psychological disorders.
  • Insomnia. 
  • Seizures.
  • Ringing in the ears (Tinnitus).
  • Anemia. 

Complications of Malaria Disease

Malaria can be deadly, especially when it is caused by one of the prevalent African Plasmodium types. According to statistics from the World Health Organization, 94% of malaria deaths happen in Africa, mostly in children under the age of 5. Most often, one or more major complications from malaria cause deaths, such as: 

  • Kidney failure.
  • Unusually low blood glucose.
  • Liver failure, which can lead to Jaundice.
  • Shock, which includes a sudden fall in blood pressure.
  • swelling and rupture of the spleen.
  • Pulmonary Edema, where fluid builds up in the lungs.
  • Dehydration.
  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome, which affects breathing. 

Can I Prevent Malaria?

Consult your healthcare professional about taking malaria preventive medication if you intend to go to or live temporarily in a region where the disease is prevalent. You will need to take the medicines before, during and after your stay. The probability of contracting malaria can be significantly decreased with medication. If you take these medications and still get malaria, they cannot be used to treat the illness. Additionally, you ought to take safety measures to prevent mosquito bites. To reduce your risk of contracting malaria, you ought to: 

  • Apply mosquito repellent with DEET (Diethyltoluamid) to exposed skin.
  • Put screens on doors and windows.
  • Cover mattresses with mosquito netting. 
  • Treat clothing, tents, mosquito nets, sleeping bags and other fabrics with an insect repellent called Permethrin. 
  • Wear long sleeves and long pants to cover your skin. 
Is There A Vaccine Against Malaria?

A children’s vaccination was created and tested as part of a pilot program in Ghana, Kenya, and Malawi. The severe disease-causing Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children can be prevented using the RTS, S/AS01 vaccination. Other programs are working to develop a Malaria vaccine.


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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common lung condition. It affects over 6% of the population in the United States, where smoking is the leading cause of COPD. Symptoms of COPD include cough, chest infections, and breathlessness. It may also affect mood, quality of life, and life expectancy. The primary treatment for COPD is inhalers. These are drugs that are inhaled into the lungs. COPD inhalers are available in a wide variety of sizes and forms. They vary in cost and type of medication and device. Selecting the inhalers that best suit your needs, your way of life, and your budget might be difficult with so many variations available. Consulting with Dr. Sheetu Singh for a Guide to COPD inhalers promises an insightful and comprehensive understanding of managing Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). By seeking counsel from Dr. Sheetu Singh, individuals with COPD gain not only a reliable source of medical expertise but also a compassionate partner in their journey toward better respiratory health. 

Inhalers and COPD: The Basics 

We need to go over some fundamentals regarding what happens to the lungs in COPD before we can comprehend how inhalers help. COPD stands for “chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.:

  • Chronic: This implies that there is no treatment for the illness, making it a permanent condition. 
  • Obstructive: This describes how the lungs’ airways are obstructed, making it difficult for the lungs to pump air into and out of the body.
  • Pulmonary: This refers to the airways.

People with COPD typically have two lung problems:

  • Emphysema: This is harm to the lungs’ air sacs, or alveoli, typically brought on by smoking cigarettes. The main symptom is breathlessness. 
  • Chronic Bronchitis: This is another example of lung airway impairment brought on mostly by cigarette smoking. This inflammation causes mucus, cough, and frequent chest infections. 

What is an Inhaler, and how does it work?

The most popular method of taking COPD medication is with an inhaler. When an inhaler is used correctly, the drug enters the lungs, where it is needed. Nebulizers and spacers are two further tools that can be useful (more on those later). We will go through each of the several varieties of inhalers in this guide. Inhalers for COPD vary by:

  • Medication: They contain different active ingredients. 
  • Dosage: Every puff delivers a different dose.
  • Device: Inhalers work in different ways.
  • Affordability: Generic alternatives vary in price and availability. 

Types of Inhalers for Treating COPD 

COPD inhalers can be categorized based on two factors: the kind of device and the medication it contains. 

1. Types of COPD Inhaler Medications

An inhaler may be referred to as a “preventer” or “reliever” by your provider. These phrases describe the kind of drug that is contained in the inhaler:

  • Preventer (maintenance) Inhaler: A COPD preventer inhaler aids in preventing the disease’s symptoms and flare-ups. This kind of medication is used once or twice a day, with each dose taken at the same time. 
  • Reliever (Rescue) Inhaler: A reliever inhaler offers immediate relief from symptoms. Reliever inhalers can be used occasionally or not at all. The frequency of usage is contingent upon one’s symptoms. 

2. Types of COPD Inhaler Devices 

Different devices use different methods to get medication into the lungs. You can choose between: 

  • Metered Dose Inhalers (MDIs): MDIs contain medication in a liquid form. Like a spray can, the inhaler releases the liquid medication as an Aerosol. You must take a deep breath in while utilizing an MDI, precisely when you press the button on the device. The timing of this can be tricky for some people. 
  • Dry Powder Inhalers (DPIs): DPIs contain medication in dry powder form. A capsule holding powder is punctured by the inhaler mechanism. The powder is then directly inhaled through the lips into the lungs. As you don’t have to time your inhalation with button pressing, DPIs may be simpler to use for certain individuals. However, it requires deep breathing to be effective.

Both MDIs and DPIs can deliver both types of medication (relievers and preventers).

3. Nebulizers 

Medication for COPD may also be used as a nebulizer. A nebulizer is a device that uses a mask to create a mist that you can inhale into your lungs instead of a liquid medication. Nebulizers can be easier to use for some people. For instance, they’re frequently applied in hospitals for severely dyspeptic patients. Nebulizers can be used at home by certain persons daily or in an emergency, depending on their needs. 

4. Bronchodilators 

Pharmacological agents known as bronchodilators facilitate airway opening by causing the surrounding muscles to relax. The bronchodilator medications used in COPD inhalers are beta-agonists and Antimuscarinics. These drugs may have a short or extended half-life and be used to treat symptoms over time or to relieve them immediately: 

  • Short-acting beta Agonists (SABAs)
  • Long-acting beta Agonists (LABAs)
  • Short-acting Muscarinic Antagonists (SAMAs)
  • Long-acting Muscarinic Antagonists (LAMAs) 

Short-acting Beta Agonists (SABAs)

Breathing becomes easier and the airways become more relaxed and expansive when SABAs act on the beta-2 receptors in the lungs. An often-used bronchodilator inhaler is SABA. They can be purchased as nebulizer solutions, DPIs, and MDIs.  

Regardless of symptoms, SABAs are not the kind of inhaler you use every day. Usually, you’ll utilize it when your symptoms get worse. This is because, while they act fast, the relief they provide is just momentary. In hospitals, they are frequently administered via nebulizers. Common examples include: 

  • Albuterol (ProAir, Accuneb, Proventil, Ventolin HFA)
  • Levalbuterol (Xopenex HFA)

Precautions 

If you need to take your SABA more frequently than once every four hours, either because your symptoms are returning or the inhaler is not functioning as it should, give your healthcare practitioner a call straight away. If you take these drugs more frequently than once every four hours, you may be extremely ill and require immediate medical attention. This inhaler can cause shaking of the hands (Tremors), noticeable heartbeats (Palpitations), or feelings of excitement or stress. 

Long-acting Beta Agonist (LABA) 

Like SABAs, LABAs also help open the airways by relaxing the muscles around them. The distinction is that LABAs operate for a greater amount of time than SABAs. LABAs are one of the primary COPD therapies. LABAs are long-acting drugs that are given once or twice daily to either stop symptoms altogether or to stabilize them. They’re available as DPIs, MDIs, and other Nebulizer solutions. Common examples include:

  • Salmeterol (Serevent Diskus)
  • Formoterol (Perforomist)
  • Arformoterol (Brovana)
  • Olodaterol (Striverdi Respimat) 

Precautions 

Tremors (handshaking), palpitations (noticeable heartbeats), and anxiety or excitement are all possible side effects of LABAs.    

Short-acting Muscarinic Antagonists (SAMAs)

Similar to SABAs, SAMAs facilitate breathing by acting on receptors in the lungs. One such is Ipratropium (Atrovent). 

Short-acting, low-cost SAMAs have the potential to alleviate dyspnea symptoms, particularly when combined with a SABA. SAMAs are typically used in conjunction with inhalers rather than alone. Additionally, if you currently take LAMA daily, you shouldn’t use them. They can be purchased as MDIs, and hospitals also utilize them in nebulizers. 

Precautions 

It is advisable to see a healthcare provider if your inhaler is not providing relief from your symptoms or if you are using it more frequently than once every six hours. 

Long-acting Muscarinic Antagonista (LAMAs) 

These medications help to ease symptoms for a longer period because they are long-acting SAMAs. LAMAs are daily long-acting medicines used to either prevent or stabilize symptoms. They’re available as DPIs, MDIs, and nebulizer solutions. Examples include:

  • Tiotropium (Spiriva Handihaler, Spiriva Respimat)
  • Umeclidinium (Incruse Ellipta)
  • Aclidinium (Tudorza Pressair)
  • glycopy rrolate (Lonhala Magnair)
  • Revefenacin (Yupelri)

Precautions 

LAMAs can cause a dry mouth. 

Inhaled Corticosteroids 

Inhaled Corticosteroids are medications that assist in lessening airway inflammation, which facilitates breathing. These should only be used to treat COPD in patients who, despite taking a LABA, LAMA, or both, are still experiencing symptoms. Stated differently, patients with more severe forms of COPD are treated with inhaled corticosteroids. 

It is recommended to use inhaled corticosteroids in conjunction with a LABA and/or LAMA, either as a separate inhaler or as part of a combination Inhaler. That’s because Bronchodilators work better for treating COPD- with fewer side effects than steroids. Inhaled Corticosteroids are available as MDIs and DPIs on their own. Example include:

  • Budesonide (Pulmicort)
  • Fluticasone (Flovent, ArmonAir Digihaler, Arnuity Ellipta)
  • Mometasone (Asmanex HFA, Asmanex Twisthaler) 

Precautions 

You can prevent side effects such as voice changes and fungal infections in the mouth by using these inhalers with a spacer and carefully cleaning your mouth afterward (Oral Thrush). 

Combination Inhalers 

Your provider may prescribe you a combination Inhaler. This is an inhaler that combines two (or often three) distinct medications. When you take both medicines at once, the relief from dyspnea is greater than when you take them separately.

Combination inhalers, which facilitate the simultaneous administration of various medications, are frequently prescribed to patients with more severe cases of COPD. 

Long-acting Bronchodilators (LABA+LAMA)

The most typical pairing Two long-acting bronchodilators are included in COPD inhalers (LABA+LAMA):

  • umeclidinium/Vilanterol (Anoro Ellipta)
  • Tiotropium/Olodaterol (Stiolto Respimat)
  • Glycopyrrolate/Formoterol (Bevespi Aerosphere)
  • Aclidinium/Formoterol (Duaklir Pressair) 

Short-acting Bronchodilator (LABA OR LAMA) with a Corticosteroid

Additionally, a corticosteroid and a long-acting bronchodilator (LABA or LAMA) can be obtained together: 

  • Fluticasone/Salmeterol (Advair Diskus, Wixela Inhub)
  • Budesonide/Formoterol (Symbicort)
  • Fluticasone/Vilanterol (Breo Ellipta)
  • Mometasone/Formoterol (Dulera)

Three-Ingredient Inhaler (LABA-LAMA+Corticosteroid) 

LABA, LAMA, and corticosteroids are the three constituents of one kind of inhaler. As an illustration, consider: 

  • Trelegy Ellipta (Fluticasone/Umeclidinium/Vilanterol)

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Any illness or condition caused by a fungus is referred to as a fungal infection. They usually affect the skin, hair, nails, or mucous membranes, but they can also infect other parts of your body, including your lungs. Fungal infections are more common in those with weakened immune systems. Generally, antifungal medications are used to treat fungal infections.

Mycosis, or fungal infections, can be brought on by mold or yeast. Although they can affect the mouth, throat, lungs, urinary tract, and many other parts of the body, fungal infections mostly affect the skin or nails.

What are Fungi?

Fungi are living things that are classified separately from animals or plants. They move around by spreading out or sending spores (reproductive parts) into the air or environment. Many fungi live naturally in our body (GI tract, mouth, skin ) but can overgrow under certain circumstances. Scientists estimate that millions of fungi exist worldwide, but only a few numbers are known to pose a threat to human health. This includes certain yeasts and molds.

What Does A Fungal Infection Look Like?

Skin infections caused by fungi can cause swelling, bumpiness, or redness. They may resemble a rash or be visible as a lump beneath your skin. Fungal infections can cause your nails to become thick, brittle, or discolored (yellow, brown, or white). Fungal infections in your throat or mouth can cause patches or a white coating. 

Who is Most at Risk for Fungal Infections?

Anyone can get a fungal infection, especially if it affects the nails or skin. The body parts that experience high levels of friction or moisture retention are more susceptible to fungal infections. You are more susceptible to infections, particularly serious ones, if you have poor circulation from diabetes or any of the following conditions that affect your immune system. 

  • Cancer or Cancer treatments.
  • HIV/AIDS
  • Immunosuppressant Medications (for stem cell, autoimmune conditions or organ, or bone marrow transplants.

Types of Fungal Infections 

Fungal infections can be subcutaneous (under the skin), superficial (under the skin), or deep (within other organs such as the heart, brain, or lungs). They can also occur on the surface of the skin, nails, or mucous membranes. 

Superficial Fungal Infections: Superficial fungal infections affect your skin, nails, and mucous membranes like throat, mouth, or vagina). Examples of superficial fungal infections include:

  • Ringworm (Dermatophytosis): Ringworm is caused by a type of fungi called Dermatophytes, which feed on the cells of the skin, hair, and nails. They can infect your hands (tinea Manuum), your scalp (tinea capitis), your feet (tinea pedis/athlete’s foot), your groin and inner thighs (tinea cruris/jock itch), your facial hair and surrounding skin (tinea barbae), and other areas of your body (tinea corporis). 
  • Onychomycosis: Onychomycosis, or fungal nail infections, can be caused by a variety of fungal species. Nail discoloration and cracking may result from this.
  • Candidiasis: Candida (typically Candida albicans) causes infections known as candidiasis, which affect the skin and mucous membranes (mucocutaneous). These include esophageal candidiasis, candidal intertrigo, vaginal yeast infections (vulvovaginitis), oral thrush, and other diaper rash conditions.
  • Tinea Versicolor/Pityriasis Versicolor: Dermatological discolorations known as tinea versicolor or pityriasis versicolor are caused by the fungus Malassezia. 

2. Subcutaneous Fungal Infections: A fungal infection can occur subcutaneously or beneath the skin’s surface, when the fungus penetrates a cut or wound, frequently as a result of an accident sustained while handling plants (e.g., a thorny scratch). They cause ulcers, rashes, and other symptoms on your skin. 

  • Sporotrichosis (rose gardener’s disease): The fungus Sporothrix is the cause of sporotrichosis. Sporotrichosis can potentially affect the lungs or other organs in your body.
  • Chromoblastomycosis: Chromoblastomycosis can be brought on by a variety of fungi. It may result in persistent (chronic) skin infections. Very seldom does it spread to other body areas.
  • Eumycetoma: Many different fungi can cause Eumycetoma. It most commonly affects your feet. 

3. Deep Fungal Infections: Deep fungal infections are found in places in your body other than your skin like your blood, lungs, urinary tract, or brain. Certain infections are considered opportunistic, which means that they often only infect individuals with compromised immune systems. Invasive or deep fungal infections include:

  • Histoplasmosis: The fungus Histoplasma, which is the cause of histoplasmosis, can infect your brain, lungs, or other bodily components. The Ohio and Mississippi river valleys are typical spots for it. 
  • Blastomycosis: The fungus Blastomyces, which causes blastomycosis, frequently infects your skin, lungs, and bones. It can very rarely infect your spinal cord and brain as well.
  • Coccidioidomycosis (Valley fever): Coccidioidomycosis, which is caused by the fungus Coccidioides, is a lung infection that sometimes spreads to other areas of the body. Arizona and California are where it’s most prevalent.
  • Aspergillosis: Aspergillus, the mold responsible for aspergillosis, can lead to other lung diseases, such as chronic pulmonary aspergillosis and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). It can also infect other parts of your body or form a fungus bal (Aspergilloma). 
  • Candidal Urinary Tract Infection: Most urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by bacteria, but some are also brought on by yeasts like Candida.
  • Invasive Candidiasis: Invasive candidiasis is caused by several species of Candida. It can infect your blood, heart, eyes, brain, bones, or other parts of your body. 
  • Pneumocystis Pneumonia (PJP): Pneumocystis Jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) is a fungal infection that can affect your lungs. 
  • Mucormycosis: Mucormycosis is caused by a class of molds known as mucormycetes. Mucormycetes can cause infections in a variety of bodily areas at once, including the skin (cutaneous mucormycosis), lungs (pulmonary mucormycosis), intestines (gastrointestinal mucormycosis), sinuses, and brain (Rhinocerebral mucormycosis). 
  • Cryptococcosis: Cryptococcosis is brought on by Cryptococcus Neoformans and Cryptococcus Gattii. Usually affecting the lungs, they can also occasionally infect the brain and spinal cord (a condition known as cryptococcal meningitis).

Symptoms and Causes :

1. What are the symptoms of fungal infections? 

The symptoms of a fungal infection vary depending on the kind of infection you have and where it is on your body.Symptoms most commonly manifest on the skin, nails, or mucous membranes (mouth, throat, or vagina). Infections in the brain, lungs, intestines, eyes, or sinuses can occasionally cause symptoms. 

2. Symptoms of Superficial or Subcutaneous Infections 

Symptoms of infections under the skin or on the surface include:

  • Soreness, itching, redness, or rash in the affected area.
  • Thick, discolored, or cracked nails.
  • discomfort during eating, taste loss, or white patches in the throat or mouth.
  • A painless lump under your skin. 

3. Symptoms of fungal infections in your lungs

The following are signs of fungal infections in the lungs:

  • Cough, sometimes coughing up blood.
  • Fever.
  • Fatigue (tiredness).
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Joint pain.
  • Muscles aches.
  • Night sweats.

What Causes Fungal Infections?

Fungal infections are brought on by molds, yeast, and other fungus species. Most fungi don’t cause disease in people, but a few do. Opportunistic infections are those that, although they seldom cause illnesses themselves, can take advantage of particular conditions, such weakened immune systems. Some common fungi you can get infection from include:

  • Dermatophytes: A class of fungi known as dermatophytes feed on keratin, which is found in your nails, hair, and skin’s outer layer. Living tissue is not infected by them. 
  • Candida: Yeasts like Candida albicans exist naturally on your body and normally don’t cause any issues. Under certain conditions, it can grow too much and cause redness and itching. Rarely, it can cause serious infections. 
  • Environmental Fungi that live in water or soil. Examples include Coccidioides, Histaplasma, Blastomyces, and Aspergillus.

How is A Fungal Infection Diagnosed?

Where fungal illness appears on your body will determine how your healthcare practitioner diagnoses it. Consulting with Dr. Sheetu Singh for a fungal infection ensures a comprehensive and expert approach to addressing your health concerns. She is an experienced and skilled physician with a focus on infectious illnesses and dermatology. Dr. Singh uses the most recent technological breakthroughs in medicine and diagnostic techniques to perform a comprehensive examination during the consultation to determine the precise type of fungal infection. In samples of yours: they might search for indications of fungus or attempt to cultivate fungus from them. 

  • Skin or other affected tissue.
  • Blood.
  • Nails (nail clipping).
  • Pee (Urine).
  • Phlegm (Sputum).
  • Fluid around your brain and spinal cord (CNS fluid).
  • Fluid from your eye (Secreations).
  • Vaginal discharge.

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Every year on April 7, the world observes World Health Day, an occasion to highlight major health issues and emphasize the value of maintaining global health. This day, which is organized by the World Health Organization (WHO), provides a chance for people, groups, and organizations from all over the world to unite and strive toward accomplishing the health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

We will examine the significance of World Health Day, its background, and its relationship to the SDGs in this extensive guide. In addition, we will offer helpful tools for comprehending and advocating for health-related SDGs and useful advice on how you can help create a healthy global community. Ranging from mental health to insurance and everything in between, this day sets the tone for what’s to come on the world stage. The focus of World Health Day this year will be on nurses and midwives, the restless, on-call workforce that transformed the healthcare system into what it is today. As World Health Day 2024 dawned, the global community was fortunate to have Dr. Sheetu Singh as a guiding light in navigating the complex landscape of public health. Her insightful guide, disseminated on World Health Day, encapsulated a comprehensive vision for fostering well-being on a global scale.

When is World Health Day 2024?

World Health Day is observed on April 7 and highlights the immeasurable importance of being well. Spearheaded by the World Health Organization (WHO), mental, physical, and emotional well-being is celebrated and promoted all over the world on this day.

The Theme of World Health Day

World Health Day 2023 was focused on the Theme of Health For All. The 2024 Theme for World Health Day is not decided yet.

History of World Health Day

To discuss World Health Day, we must first discuss the establishment of the World Health Organization as a whole. An international health organization that is comprehensive and autonomous from any sovereign authority was suggested in December 1945 by representatives of China and Brazil.

The World Health Organization’s constitution was adopted in July 1946, in New York, six months later. April 7, 1948, saw the adoption of the aforementioned constitution, which was ratified by 61 nations. As one of the first official acts of WHO, they created the celebration of World Health Day, to encourage student engagement, the first observation date was moved from July 22, 1949, to April 7, the day of WHO’s founding.

Since 1950, the current WHO Director-General has chosen a new Theme for Worth Health Day each year, drawing inspiration from recommendations made by staff members and member states. World Health Day provides a global opportunity to focus attention on important public health issues that affect the international community. Promotional initiatives are started on April 7 in honor of World Health Day, and they last long after.

A similar report on the midwifery workforce will be completed in 2021. World Health Day 2020 will highlight the critical role that nurses and midwives play in providing healthcare globally. Advocacy events will be held throughout the world, including the launch of the first-ever State of the World’s Nursing Report, which will offer planning to maximize the contributions of the nursery workforce.

Traditions of The Day

World Health Day has been used by people all over the world to advocate for health issues and access to healthcare since its founding. The World Health Organization has a different theme every year for this day, which is highlighted in seminars, schools, workshops, and discussion forums. The main goals of the day are to raise awareness of the health problems that the underprivileged and destitute face in developing nations all over the world, as well as to serve as a gentle reminder to take better care of our health.

Outdoor activities like bicycling and hiking are organized, as well as charity drives and fundraisers. Due to our demanding lifestyles, mental health is often overlooked even though it is becoming increasingly vital. So medication and therapy are greatly encouraging.

Why World Health Day is Important 

  • Why World Health Day is Important: World Health Day inspires action on a global scale World Health Day is one of WHO’s eight official global health campaigns. Media coverage and awareness-raising events are sparked by this day.
  • It’s a Chance to Learn Something New: World Health Day makes sure we are continually learning by selecting a new theme every year! WHO selects the theme for the week’s conferences and events each year based on a critical health issue that is currently affecting the public.
  • It Brings Us Together: It’s vital to take some time on World Health Day to consider your health. Having a conversation can lessen the stigma attached to sickness and encourage more individuals to seek assistance and care.

How to Celebrate World Health Day

World Health Day is one that everyone may celebrate and observe, including families, individuals, churches, and other community organizations. It’s a great chance to talk to people about important issues. To begin celebrating and enjoying a day, try any of the following ideas:

  • Care for your Family’s Health: On this day, many people might decide to take additional safety measures to safeguard their health and the health of their families. This is a great time to start taking multivitamins, designing a healthy diet, or purchasing a gym membership (and using it!). It is never too late to start leading a more health-conscious life.
  • Spread the Word About World Health Day: It’s a great approach to commemorate this day to spread knowledge about health and the obstacles it faces. Spend some time interacting with people and educating them on the important topic of global health.
  • Get Involved with World Health Day Events: Now is the perfect opportunity to become involved in local World Health Day events. Many people may choose to create their WHD if they are unable to locate anything that has previously been organized.
  • Plan Fundraisers for World Health Day: It is impossible to overestimate the significance of World Health Day, which can be utilized to plan fundraising activities in support of nearby free clinics and other public health services. Take part in a walk or run to raise money and awareness, or just give something personal to a worthy organization that supports world health.

How To Observe World Health Day

  • Organize a Conversation in your Community: WHO offers free information toolkits for organizers. Accept the challenge and start a discussion about a contemporary healthcare topic in your neighborhood.
  • Read up on Past Year’s Themes: Examining the archives of more than 50 years of health days can be an intriguing way to assess how far or how little healthcare has advanced. Even with older material, there’s always something new and intriguing to learn.
  • Thank Your Nurses: This year’s World Health Day is focused on them so make sure to thank them! Tweets, flowers, or any nice gesture will go a long way for sure.

FAQ’s of World Health Day 2024:

Why is World Health Day celebrated on April 7th every year?

The World Health Organization (WHO) was founded in 1948, and April 7th is its founding anniversary. On this day, the world observes World Health Day, a campaign to promote worldwide action and increase awareness of critical health concerns.

How can individuals contribute to building a healthier future on World Health Day?

People can make a difference by leading healthy lifestyles, encouraging immunization, spreading mental health awareness, funding neighborhood health programs, and keeping up with international health concerns.

What are the key health challenges addressed by World Health Day 2024?

The objectives of World Health Day 2024 encompass a wide range of health-related issues, such as mental health, non-communicable illnesses, infectious diseases, access to healthcare, and health equity promotion.

How is the World Health Organization (WHO) involved in World Health Day?

Promoting and organizing World Health Day internationally is a major responsibility of the WHO. Along with reporting and launching projects frequently by the day’s topic, it offers resources, instructions, and information to nations and communities.

What is the purpose of World Health Day?

The celebration has aimed to create awareness of a specific health theme to highlight a priority area of concern for the World Health Organization.


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A sore throat is a common ailment often caused by viral infections like the common flu or cold or occasionally by bacterial infections such as Streptococcus. The majority of sore throats are minor and go away on their own in a couple of days. However, it’s critical to be on the lookout for indications that your sore throat can be a sign of a more serious infection. If your sore throat is accompanied by high fever, difficulty breathing or swallowing, persistent pain for more than a week or the appearance of white patches on the back of your throat, it’s crucial to consult a healthcare professional, consulting with Dr. Sheetu Singh is a prudent step towards finding relief and maintaining your overall health. 

Sore throats are common in kids. It might be challenging to determine if your child has a sore throat that will go away on its own or one brought on by a more serious infection. These symptoms could indicate strep throat tonsillitis, infection or other bacterial infections that may require Antibiotics for treatment. Additionally, it’s advisable to get medical treatment right away if you have a weakened immune system or underlying medical issues as you may be more vulnerable to infections with a higher propensity for severity. Here’s some common infection information that may include a sore throat.

  • The Common Cold 

A viral illness like the common cold is the main cause of sore throats. These illnesses are more prevalent in the winter, but they can occur at any time. In addition to a scratchy throat and sore, a cold virus can cause your child to have a runny nose, fever and cough. A virus-induced sore throat won’t go better with antibiotics. Usually, these infections resolve in 7–10 days without medication. The best method to treat a cold and sore throat in a child is to keep them as comfortable as possible, ensure they drink lots of fluids and give them plenty of rest. 

  • Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease 

Foot, hand and mouth disease is caused by a family of viruses called Enteroviruses. This infection most often spreads among young children during summer and fall, although cases may occur year-round. Early signs may include a fever, sore throat or mouthache, then a rash that looks like a mix of tiny red bumps and blisters, especially on the hands, feet, buttocks and around the mouth. Blisters and sores may form in the throat and mouth making it painful to swallow. As with other viruses, Antibiotics will not help this type of sore throat. Dr. Sheetu Singh may recommend Acetaminophen or Ibuprofen for the fever and pain, along with fluids and rest at home until the blister is healed. 

  • Strep Throat 

An infection known as Strep Throat is brought on by the bacteria Streptococcus Pyogene. It’s most commonly seen among children 5 to 15 years old, usually during early spring and winter. Only 20% to 30% of throat infections in school-age children are caused by strep throat. Symptoms include pus on the tonsils, sore throat, fever, difficulty swallowing and swollen glands. Children may also complain of stomachaches, headaches and may develop a red, shaper-like rash on their bodies. A runny nose or cough nose are not typical symptoms of sore throat among older children. Strep throat is extremely uncommon in toddlers and infants. 

Why is it Important to Know the Difference? 

Children’s sore throats are typically brought on by viral infections, which do not respond to medications and heal on their own. Children with strep throat also may recover without Antibiotics. However, antibiotics can speed up recovery time, lower the risk of developing certain complications from strep throat and reduce contagiousness. One of the most crucial complications to prevent is acute rheumatic fever, a condition that can harm the heart and joints. Antibiotics are important for treating bacterial infections like strep throat but have their risks including yeast infections, diarrhea, the development of antibiotic resistance and allergic reactions. 

Sore Throat: Diagnosis & Treatment 

After evaluating your child and clearing out a bacterial infection, your pediatrician can identify a sore throat brought on by a virus. The best way to care for a sore throat caused by a virus is to keep your kid comfortable and make sure they rest and get plenty of fluids. Dr. Sheetu Singh may recommend Ibuprofen or Acetaminophen to relieve the pain and fever. For foot, hand and mouth disease, which is highly contagious your child should stay home until the blisters begin to heal. 

Preventing Illnesses That Cause Sore Throat 

The bacteria and viruses that cause a sore throat are passed from individual to individual through the hands of someone who is infected or droplets of moisture in the air. The illnesses may spread through childcare centers and schools. The fact that people are frequently most contagious before they even start to exhibit symptoms makes preventive difficult. Covering sneezes and cough with a tissue or upper arm, washing hands, cleaning toys and not sharing drinking cups is the best way to try to prevent the spread of illness. 


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Every year on November 12th, there is an event called World Pneumonia Day that aims to increase awareness and encourage action against pneumonia. It is a day set aside to draw attention to and resources toward this fatal condition, which claims the lives of nearly 2 million children annually throughout the world. Pneumonia is an infectious disease that is more than just a respiratory infection. In low- and middle-income countries, it is one of the main causes of death for children under five. It has been estimated that pneumonia kills more kids globally each year than AIDS, measles combined, and malaria. 

Pneumonia in children is possibly the most neglected illness worldwide. More than 800,000 children under the age of five die from the sickness each year, making it the leading cause of death for kids. (This includes around 3% of the world’s under-5 child mortality, or over 153,000 infants, who are especially susceptible to infection). A life is lost every 39 seconds, a startling statistic that is declining more slowly than other main killers and too slowly for the global community to reach the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) of ending preventable child deaths. Pneumonia hasn’t gotten enough attention from the international community, or regrettably from the governments of countries where it’s a major cause of child mortality, despite the terrible toll and the slow rate of progress. 

A Pneumonia Crisis Across the Life Course

It is more important than ever to combat the number one infectious killer of adults and children. In 2019 alone, pneumonia killed 2.5 million people, including 672,000 children. The confluence of the COVID-19 pandemic, climate change, and conflict is exacerbating the pneumonia epidemic throughout the life course, hence increasing the number of individuals susceptible to infection and mortality. A staggering 6 million people were predicted to die in 2021 from respiratory illnesses, including COVID-19. 

Children who reside in households that use polluting fuels for cooking and heating, in places where vaccination rates are dropping, and in areas where hunger is on the rise as a result of food shortages are especially vulnerable. If quick steps are not taken to reach these kids, like giving them oxygen and antibiotics, UNICEF has warned that child mortality will increase. 

Older adults are exposed to air pollution- smoking is also dangerous, primarily from burning fossil fuels. Air pollution and smoking are linked to nearly half of the 1.6 million predicted deaths from pneumonia among those over 50. Most of the populations are dangerously exposed to pneumonia and live in a group of low-middle-income countries like Asia, Africa, and Latin America- including the 11 countries that are home to the winning entries. 

World Pneumonia Day 2023 Theme

Championing the fight to stop pneumonia will be the subject of World Pneumonia Day 2023

Global Efforts to Combat Pneumonia 

Vaccines that can save lives have been made available to children in low-income countries who are at risk of pneumonia due to pneumococcal illnesses thanks to the efforts of global organizations like GAVI, or The Vaccine Alliance. Furthermore, initiatives like The Global Coalition Against Child Pneumonia (GCACP) link governments from all around the world with associates from the charitable and civil society sectors in pursuit of a single objective: lowering the number of pediatric pneumonia fatalities globally by 2030. 

The Role of Healthcare Providers in the Treatment of Pneumonia

Dr. Sheetu Singh plays an important role in preventing and treating pneumonia-related illnesses. When choosing the appropriate course of therapy, it is essential to correctly identify if the pneumonia is bacterial or viral. For bacterial infections, antibiotics may be required, while antivirals may be recommended for viral infections. Additionally, healthcare workers must follow WHO guidelines and national health authorities’ recommendations to guarantee that their patients receive vaccinations against pneumococcal infections. 

Symptoms of Pneumonia 

When it comes to the symptoms of pneumonia, common signs include chills, fever, coughing up greenish-yellow mucus (known as sputum), difficulty breathing, and chest pain. Other symptoms can include sweating, headaches, loss of appetite, fatigue, and shortness of breath. In more extreme situations, brain oxygen deprivation may result in delirium or confusion. 

  • Fever
  • Shivering
  • Having trouble breathing
  • Chest ache
  • Lethargy
  • Reduced appetite
  • A cough that may be dry or produce thick mucus that is green, yellow, brown, or strained with blood
  • Sputum with blood in it 

Diagnosing Pneumonia

Medical personnel need to be able to distinguish between pneumonia and other lung infections like bronchitis or asthma to swiftly and accurately diagnose pneumonia. In order to achieve this, Dr. Sheetu Singh usually performs a physical examination in addition to chest X-rays or CT scans to search for any indications of inflammation or fluid accumulation in the lungs that could indicate pneumonia. Furthermore, blood tests could be performed to rule out any underlying causes of the illness, such as a viral or bacterial infection. 

Treatment Options

Depending on how severe the infection is, several treatment options are available. More serious instances may need to be hospitalized and treated with intravenous antibiotics that are injected directly into the bloodstream. Milder infections may be treated with oral antibiotics taken at home. In addition to antibiotics, other treatments such as respiratory therapies and supplemental oxygen therapy may also be used to help improve breathing function and reduce discomfort associated with the condition. 

Most of the time, mild pneumonia can typically be treated at home by:

  • The use of antibiotics.
  • Getting lots of sleep.
  • Hospital care may be necessary for severe pneumonia in at-risk populations.
  • Consuming a lot of liquids. 

Prevention Tips 

There are some crucial preventive steps you may take to lower your chance of contracting pneumonia, in addition to getting appropriate medical attention when necessary. These preventive measures include receiving an annual flu vaccination, which helps shield your lungs from seasonal flu viruses; avoiding cold-contact situations; frequently washing your hands; getting enough sleep; abstaining from smoking; maintaining a healthy, balanced diet; and engaging in regular exercise to enhance immunity against pneumonia and other illnesses. 

  • Ensures good hygiene standards.
  • When you sneeze or cough, cover your mouth and nose.
  • Cleaning your hands frequently will assist you in stopping the spread of germs to other persons or surfaces.
  • Furthermore, pneumonia can be avoided by leading a healthy lifestyle.
  • Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccination.
FAQ’s

Is World Pneumonia Day celebrated as a holiday?

World Pneumonia Day is not observed as a public holiday.

When do we celebrate World Pneumonia Day?

November 12th.

Why do we celebrate World Pneumonia Day?

The purpose of World Pneumonia Day is to increase public awareness of pneumonia and to encourage actions aimed at preventing, treating, and preventing the illness.

What is the theme of Pneumonia Day 2023?

World Pneumonia Day (2023) will focus on advocating for the prevention of pneumonia.

Who established World Pneumonia Day?

On November 12, 2009, the Global Coalition against Child Pneumonia, which consists of over 100 child-interest organizations, organized the first-ever World Pneumonia Day.

What is pneumonia in India?

Infection of one or both lungs air sacs is known as pneumonia. Pneumonia can be caused by a wide range of organisms, such as viruses, fungi, and bacteria.


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Get excited for World Diabetes Day on November 14! The World Health Organization and the International Diabetes Federation established this day in 1991 to increase public awareness of diabetes. Since then, communities from all around the world have come together to celebrate and exchange experiences, knowledge, and tales about the disease on November 14 of each year. It is an opportunity for those who already have diabetes or who may develop it in the future to unite and support one another. World Diabetes Day is celebrated on 14 November. 

When your blood glucose, sometimes known as blood sugar, is too high, you develop diabetes. The primary energy source for the human body is glucose. The hormone insulin, which is released by the pancreas, converts food into energy that is then transported to the body’s cells. Insufficient insulin secretion results in blood glucose remaining unconverted and unable to be used by human cells as an energy source. This blood glucose level or high blood sugar is called diabetes. The importance of World Diabetes Day in our combined efforts to prevent, manage, and eventually find a cure for this chronic condition was reinforced by Dr. Sheetu Singh passion for bettering the lives of those who are affected by the disease. Her knowledge and professionalism also made a lasting impression. 

The Theme of World Diabetes Day 2023 

“Empowering Global Health” is the World Diabetes Day 2023 theme announced by WHO.

The theme also aims to inform and inspire people to call on their public health organizations and other international organizations to provide better opportunities, infrastructure, labor, and financial support to improve diabetes education to combine efforts with the World Health Organization and other organizations to meet the 2030 target for diabetes coverage. This includes:

  • Diagnosis of 80% of people affected with diabetes.
  • More control over blood pressure and glucose should be exercised by 80% of those with a diagnosis. 
  • All individuals diagnosed with type 1 diabetes should have simple access to insulin and appropriate tools for managing their blood glucose levels. 

World Diabetes Day History 

Although diabetes is a disease, there is currently no long-term treatment. In 2006, World Diabetes Day was recognized by the UN. The International Diabetes Federation, with backing from the World Health Organization, created World Diabetes Day in 1991 in response to growing concerns about the health and financial impact that diabetes poses. Diabetes happens due to insufficient secretion of Insulin by the pancreas. Research was conducted to meet the body’s need for insulin secretion, and in 1921 Sir Frederick G. Banting (pictured), Charles H. Best, and JJR Macleod discovered insulin booster injection at the University of Toronto. James B. Collip refined the substance subsequently. To date, individuals with elevated blood glucose levels have received insulin injections as a medication. 

The “Blue Circle Logo” is used to designate World Diabetes Day campaigns. It was created in 2007, shortly after the day was formally recognized by the United Nations. Ever since the Blue Circle has come to represent the collective effort of the world’s diabetes communities to combat the rising number of diabetes cases. 

World Diabetes Day 2023 Significance 

World Diabetes Day was established by the World Health Organization and International Diabetes Federation in 1991. It was thought necessary to celebrate a day devoted only to diabetes in response to growing worries about the disease’s increasing threat to health. The resolution established November 14 as World Diabetes Day and acknowledged “the urgent need to pursue multilateral efforts to promote and improve human health and provide access to treatment and health-care education.”

  • On World Diabetes Day 2023, WHO will address the obstacles to expanding access to diabetes medications and care, but more significantly, the ways in which these obstacles can be overcome. 
  • On World Diabetes Day in 2023, the World Health Organization will run a number of awareness programs to help people understand the cause of diabetes as well as its prevention and control measures. 
  • WHO conducts many education programs to create knowledge about diabetes.
  • WHO also insists on treatment and medical facilities available nearby for diabetes check-ups for the patients. 
  • Organizations fighting diabetes will offer free health examinations on World Diabetes Day in 2023. Getting regular checkups will help prevent diabetes. 
  • Every year, the WHO expands the number of diabetes treatment centers.
  • Diabetes is a preventable disease by maintaining physical exercise and a good diet. 

Why World Diabetes Day is Important 

1. Raises Awareness of Diabetes: The world community is reminded of the significance of increasing knowledge and awareness about diabetes on World Diabetes Day. it is an opportunity to reflect on the progress made in the diagnosis, prevention, and management of this chronic disease, and bring attention to the very real challenges that individuals with diabetes face every day. 

2. Encourages Preventative Measures: Research indicates that altering one’s lifestyle can help avoid or postpone the onset of type 2 diabetes. World Diabetes Day can serve as a forum to encourage these preventative practices, which include regular exercise, healthy eating habits, and maintaining a healthy weight. 

3. Supports Those Living with Diabetes: Diabetes type 1 or type 2 shouldn’t have to be a burden for anyone. Building support networks and addressing the stigma around diabetes in our communities are two opportunities presented by World Diabetes Day. This day also emphasizes the need for accessible, affordable healthcare that supports people’s ability to control their own health and builds global health systems. 

How to Celebrate World Diabetes Day 

1. Learn About Diabetes: On this World Diabetes Day, spend some time learning more about the disease. If you have any questions, speak with a doctor or nutritionist and educate yourself on the most recent findings regarding diabetes management.

2. Focus on Healthy Eating: As part of managing diabetes, focus on making healthier food choices. Eating fresh vegetables, whole grains, fruits, and lean meats can assist in keeping blood sugar levels in check while also providing essential nutrients. 

3. Plan an Activity: Physical activity is key for preventing complications and managing diabetes. Plan an active day with friends or family- go for a swim, play a game of basketball, or take a walk in the park. 

Preventive Measures to Manage Diabetes 

The International Diabetes Foundation estimates that 54.1 crore adults worldwide are at risk of type 2 diabetes. As such, it is urgent to address this risk by supporting awareness campaigns and high-quality diabetes education platforms that educate people on how to prevent and manage diabetes at an early stage. Among the preventative strategies for managing diabetes are: 

  • Practice eating a small portion of a meal at one time.
  • Avoid refined and sugar-carbohydrate intake.
  • Include food and fibers that are low in Glycemic index.
  • Develop the daily practice of exercising for at least half an hour.
  • Quit smoking, which promotes insulin resistance.
  • Monitor your blood cholesterol level (ideally less than 200). Lower than 100 for low-density lipoprotein, above 20 for high-density lipoprotein, and below 150 for triglycerides.
  • Maintain appropriate control over your blood pressure, which ought to be 130/80 or lower.
  • Get updated with diabetes control preventive tips.
  • Encourage and promote the diabetes-related campaign to spread awareness to the needy. 
  • Avoid intake of beverages and other aerated drinks with added sugar, which can raise the risk of type 2 diabetes, and make a habit of consuming ordinary water. 
FAQ’s 

When is World Diabetes Day?

Each year on November 14, the world celebrates World Diabetes Day. World Diabetes Day is scheduled for Tuesday, 2023.

What is the World Diabetes Day 2023 theme?

The theme designated for the 2023 World Diabetes Day is “Empowering Global Health.”

When did the UN officially recognize World Diabetes Day?

In 2006, World Diabetes Day was recognized by the UN.

When was the Insulin Injection found?

Insulin injection was found in 1921.


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Sore Throat in Adult: A Sore Throat is a common issue and usually is caused by a bacterial or viral infection. The medical term for a Sore Throat is ‘Pharyngitis’. In adults, it typically goes away on its own without any issues, but it’s crucial to know when to seek medical help. A sore throat, as well as other upper respiratory diseases like the common cold, can be brought on by viruses. Antibiotics are not used to treat sore throats brought on by the common cold virus but instead may be treated with pain medication, rest and other therapies aimed at relieving symptoms. Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a type of bacterium that causes Pharyngitis. Strep Throat is treated with a course of Antibiotics. 

Symptoms of Sore Throat 

Most patients who have a sore throat have viral Pharyngitis. The most common viruses are those that cause upper respiratory infections such as the common cold. Symptoms of viral infection can include:

  • Hoarseness, cough or soreness in the roof of the mouth
  • Congested or a runny nose
  • Irritation or redness of the eyes

Some viruses can make you feel quite unwell and raise your temperature. Approximately 10% of adults with a sore throat have strep throat. The following are strep throat symptoms and warning signs:

  • Fever (temperature greater than (100.4°F or 38°C)
  • Pain in the throat
  • Runny nose, no coughs or irritation and redness of the eyes. 
  • White patches of pus on the back or side of the throat
  • Enlarged lymph glands in the neck

If you have a Sore Throat along with any of the following, then contact Dr. Sheetu Singh, she recommended a treatment plan that included hydration, rest and a course of Antibiotics to address the underlying infection. 

  • Skin rash
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Swelling of the tongue or neck
  • Difficulty opening the mouth or stiff neck
  • drooling due to difficulty swallowing 
  • medicine or underlying condition that may be affecting your immune system

Sore Throat Diagnosis 

Most people with a Sore Throat get Finer without treatment. The typical cold viruses that cause Sore Throat do not have a specific treatment. 

1. Is it strep or not- A combination of symptoms (enlarged glands in the neck, fever, no cough and white patches on your tonsils) can help in determining if you have Strep. A quick test or throat culture may be conducted if you exhibit two or more symptoms. 

Your doctor may review the symptoms and medical history. She or he may conduct a physical exam that includes:

  • examining the throat with a lighted device and, most likely, the ears and nasal passages.
  • Checking for swollen Lymph nodes by gently rubbing the neck. 
  • Listening to your or your kids breathing with a Stethoscope

2. Throat Swab

In many cases, Dr. Sheetu Singh uses a simple test to detect Streptococcal bacteria, the cause of strep throat. To obtain a sample of the patient’s secretions, the doctor uses a sterile swab on the back of the throat. The sample is subsequently delivered to a lab for examination. 

Rapid antigen tests are less accurate, although they can swiftly identify strep bacteria. As a result, if the antigen test is negative, the doctor may send a throat culture to a lab for strep throat testing. In some cases, a molecular test may be used by doctors to find Streptococcal bacteria. A Sterile Swab is used in this test to collect a sample of secretions from the back of the throat. 

Treatment of Sore Throat  

A viral illness that causes a sore throat typically lasts five to seven days and doesn’t require medical attention. Antibiotics don’t help treat a viral infection. To ease fever and pain, many people turn to Acetaminophen (Tylenol) or other mild pain relievers. If your child is experiencing discomfort, you might want to give them over-the-counter pain relievers made specifically for babies or kids, such as acetaminophen (Children’s Tylenol, FeverAll, etc.) or Ibuprofen (Children’s Advil, Children’s Motrin, etc.) to help them feel better. 

Never give Aspirin to teenagers or children because it has been linked to Reye’s syndrome, a rare but potentially life-threatening condition that causes swelling in the brain and liver. 

Treating bacterial infections :

If a bacterial infection is the root cause of your or your child’s sore throat, your doctor or pediatrician will recommend Antibiotics. If the symptoms have vanished, you must still complete the entire course of Antibiotics as directed. If the treatment is not taken completely as prescribed the illnesses may worsen or spread to other areas of the body. Also not completing the full course of Antibiotics to treat Strep Throat can increase a child’s risk of Rheumatic fever or serious kidney inflammation. 

How to Prevent Sore Throat 

Here are some ways to avoid getting that scratchy, raw, burning feeling at the back of your throat. Additionally, take the following precautions to prevent the flu and colds which frequently result in sore throat:

  • Wash your hands often
  • Stay away from individuals who are sick
  • Dont share a drink, food or utensils
  • Eat a healthy diet
  • Keep your hands away from your face and eyes
  • Drink lots of fluids
  • Get plenty of rest

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National Cancer Awareness Day 2023: National Cancer Awareness Day is held on November 7 globally. According to WHO data, nearly 70% of cancer-related mortality occurs in low- and middle-income countries. About one-third of deaths are due to cancer, which is brought on by things including smoking, having a high body mass index, drinking, eating few fruits and vegetables, and not exercising enough. The financial toll of cancer is substantial and rising. Nearly 10 million fatalities will be caused by cancer worldwide in 2020, and the following types were the most prevalent in terms of new cases:

  • Breast (2.26 million cases)
  • Lung (2.21 million cases)
  • Colon and rectum (1.93 million cases)
  • Prostate (1.41 million cases)
  • Skin (non-melanoma) (1.20 million cases) and 
  • Stomach (1.09 million cases)

The following were the leading reasons for cancer deaths in 2020:

  • Lung (1.80 million deaths)
  • Colon and rectum (935000 deaths)
  • Liver (830000 deaths)
  • Stomach (769000 deaths) and
  • Breast (685000 deaths) 

National Cancer Awareness Day: History 

In September 2014, Dr. Harsh Vardhan, the Union Health Minister, first declared a day dedicated to raising awareness of cancer. Therefore in 2014, the focus of the first-ever celebration of the day was on the early detection and treatment of cancer. As far as the history of this day is concerned, November 7 has been carefully chosen as it also marks the anniversary of the birth of Madame Curie, the scientist whose discoveries of radium and polonium led to the development of radiotherapy as a form of cancer treatment.  In the year 1911, her research on radioactivity earned her two Nobel prizes. 

The National Cancer Control Programmed was established in India in 1975 and announced the opening of facilities for the nation’s cancer care. The appropriate tools were available in these facilities to identify cancer at an early stage. 

Significance of National Cancer Awareness Day 2023

The day of November 7 has been designated as National Cancer Awareness Day in an effort to spread and increase public understanding of the deadly condition. A startling 3,17,928 deaths of men and women in India were attributed to excessive tobacco use in 2018, including oral (non-smoking) consumption and smoking. Tobacco is a toxic substance that is believed to be the leading cause of cancer in a number of people all over the world. 

Since that time, 1.1 million new cancer cases have been recorded annually in the nation; some of them are related to tobacco smoking, while others are caused by other cancers, including oral cavity and lung cancer in men, breast cancer, and cervical cancer in women.  Besides the cost factor, the mortality rate among both women and men due to cancer would also be lower if more people visited screening centers at a time when the earliest symptoms were observed. 

The goal of the 2023-24 National Cancer Awareness Day is to increase awareness among the largest possible population in India, motivate them to seek early symptom screening, and successfully prevent and treat the disease in its earliest stages. 

What to Do On 7, November 2023?  

  • Get yourself tested. It’s not always essential to wait until an issue starts to directly affect you before you can identify it. Early signs can sometimes be quickly identified through screening exams, and doctors and other medical experts may be better equipped to assist you if necessary. This is why Dr. Sheetu Singh states that an early diagnosis and intervention in the case of cancer can help save lives. 
  • Create awareness about the disease around you. Make sure you talk to your friends, family, and as many people as possible in your environment about the importance of early screening and diagnosing cancer symptoms. 
  • Assist the afflicted. Unfortunately, there may not be much we can do to assist a person who has been affected by the ailment. However, sometimes small deeds can matter a lot. 

Facts About Cancer 

According to “India Against Cancer,” a site that offers details on the most prevalent cancer in India,

  • Every eight minutes, a woman in India passes away from cervical cancer. 
  • In India, one woman passes away from breast cancer for every two newly diagnosed patients.
  • It is estimated that tobacco use causes more than 3,500 deaths each day in India.
  • Tobacco whether smokeless or smoked is also one of the causes of cancer and accounted for 3,17,928 deaths (approx) in women and men in 2018.
  • It is estimated that 2.25 million people have cancer. 
  • Every year, there are more than 11,57, 294 lakh new cancer cases reported. 
  • The total number of deaths due to cancer in 2018 is 7, 84, 821 men is 4,13,519 and women is 3,71,302 
  • Males in 2018 had a 7.34% chance of dying from cancer before the age of 75, compared to 6.28% of females. 

Note: Males die from lung and mouth cancer at a rate of 25% while women die from breast and oral cancer at a rate of about 25%. 

  • According to WHO, there were around 9.6 million cancer deaths worldwide in 2018.
  • India is the second-leading cause of death from cancer worldwide, after heart disease, according to the Lancet analysis. 
  • By 2020, India is projected to have over 17.3 lakh new instances of cancer and over 8.8 lakh cancer-related fatalities, with the most common types being breast, lung, and cervix cancers. 

Symptoms of Cancer 

It has been observed that cancer typically exhibits no particular symptoms. People should therefore schedule a timely cancer screening that is appropriate. Also, early detection of cancer has made several cancers treatable. General signs & symptoms of common cancer include:

  • Changes in bowel habits, such as persistent diarrhea.
  • Consistent blood or cough in saliva represents simple infections like bronchitis.
  • The fatal condition may also occur from unexplained anemia (low blood count).
  • Urination change
  • Breast lumps
  • Blood in the stool
  • Lumps in testicles

Various Types of Cancer Treatment 

  • Immunotherapy
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Targeted Therapy
  • Hormone Therapy
  • Surgery
  • Stem Cell Transplant
  • Precision Medicine etc. 

How Can Cancer Be Prevented?

To effectively treat cancer, early prevention and detection are essential. 

  • Healthy Diet
  • Healthy Weight
  • Get Vaccinated
  • Physically Active
  • Don’t Use Tobacco
  • Sun Protection
  • Regular Check-ups etc. 

The health of individuals who pass away from cancer represents a significant threat to India. In 2020, 8.5 lakh persons in India passed away from cancer. National Cancer Awareness Day is commemorated annually on November 7 to increase public awareness of cancer and its mortality rate. Dr. Sheetu Singh contribution offered a ray of hope, reminding us of the crucial part each person can play in raising awareness and promoting information to fight this fatal illness. Her passion and dedication had a lasting effect and reinforced the need for cooperation and information in the fight against cancer.


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A Sore throat is a scratching, pain, or burning sensation in the throat that often gets worse when swallowing. The most common cause of a sore throat (Pharyngitis) is a viral infection such as the Flu or a cold. A sore throat is a burning or scratchy feeling in the back of your throat. Symptoms of a sore throat typically go away in a few days. An infection-related sore throat disappears on its own. Strep throat, a less ordinary type of sore throat caused by bacteria, requires treatment with Antibiotics to prevent complications. Other less common causes of sore throat might require more complex treatment. 

What is Sore Throat?

A Sore throat, often characterized by pain, discomfort or scratchiness in the throat, is a common ailment that can result from various causes. It typically arises due to viral infections such as the Influenza or common cold which inflame the throat Mucous Membranes. Other factors like allergies, smoking, bacterial infections or environmental irritants can also lead to a sore throat. While the majority of sore throats are minor and go away on their own in a few days, some may need medical treatment, particularly if they last for a long time, are severe or are accompanied by other disturbing symptoms. 

What are the Symptoms of Sore Throat

Other than throat pain, sore throat symptoms may include:

  • throat discomfort or a scratchy feeling
  • Difficult swallowing
  • Speaking or swallowing causes more discomfort
  • Swollen glands, sore in your jaw or neck
  • Headache
  • Fever
  • Runny nose
  • uneasy stomach
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • cough
  • Nasal congestion (stuffy nose)
  • Fatigue
  • Hoarseness or muffled voice

Throat Anatomy

The throat includes the Esophagus; windpipe also known as the Trachea; and voice box also known as the tonsils, Larynx and Epiglottis. The following are other signs and symptoms of infections that cause sore throats:

  • Cough
  • Fever
  • Sneezing
  • Runny nose
  • Headaches
  • Body aches
  • Vomiting or Nausea

What Causes Sore Throat?

The majority of Sore Throats are caused by viral infections like the Flu or the common cold. Sore Throats may be a symptom of the following conditions or issues:

  • Bacterial infection: Bacterial sinus infection and Strep throat are examples of bacterial infections that may cause sore throats.
  • Allergies: Allergic reactions to dust mites, pollen, pets or mold can make your throat scratchy and dry. Postnasal drip causes a sore throat due to allergies (when your throat feels scratchy due to nasal discharge). Your throat becomes painfully itchy from the mucous. 
  • Tonsillitis: The two tiny lumps of soft tissue at the back of your throat are called tonsils. They seize the germs that make you ill. Tonsillitis occurs when your Tonsils become inflamed and infected. Viruses and Bacteria can cause Tonsillitis.
  • Acid reflux: Those who have Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) experience throat burning and pain. Heartburn is a pain that you experience when stomach acid backs up into your Esophagus. The tube that carries food from your throat to your stomach is called your Esophagus. 
  • Overuse or irritants: By screaming or yelling, you can strain your throat. You may also develop a sore throat if you smoke or drink very hot liquids or eat spicy food. 
  • Mouth breathing: If you breathe through your mouth rather than your nose when you’re sleeping, you may have a Sore Throat. 

Prevention of Sore Throat 

Avoiding germs that cause sore throats and maintaining proper hygiene are the best ways to prevent them. Some of them are:

  • Wash your hands frequently and thoroughly for at least 20 seconds, before and after eating, after coughing or sneezing or after using the toilet.
  • Avoid touching your face. Avoid touching your nose, mouth or eyes.
  • Avoid sharing. Drinking glasses, food or utensils
  • Cough or sneeze, put it in a tissue, discard it, and then wash your hands. When necessary sneeze into your elbow
  • Avoid drinking fountains with your mouth or touching public phones
  • Use alcohol-based hand sanitizers when soap and water are not accessible, as a substitute for cleaning your hands
  • Avoid close contact with individuals who are sick or have symptoms
  • Regularly clean and disinfect doorknobs, phones, remotes, light switches and computer keyboards. When you clean phones, travel, remotes in your hotel room and light switches. 

How are Sore Throats Treated by Healthcare Professionals?

The best way to treat your sore throat depends on what caused it. For instance, If you have a cold and your throat bothers as a result, Dr. Sheetu Singh may suggest over-the-counter medication to treat both your cold symptoms and your sore throat. If you have strep throat, Dr. Sheetu Singh may prescribe Antibiotics to treat the bacterial infection. Additional treatments for particular causes could include:

  • Over-the-counter Antihistamine medication: Sore throats may result from PostNasal drip from allergies. Antihistamines may dry PostNasal drip.
  • Over-the-counter Antacids: The heartburn and sore throat brought on by acid reflux may be relieved with Antacids. Other measures, such as avoiding large meals just before night, may be helpful.

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The World Stroke Organization (WSO) established World Stroke Day on October 29, 2004. The WSO declared to celebrate this day at the World Stroke Congress in Vancouver, Canada. This day is observed worldwide to raise awareness of the significance of rising stroke rates. As per an estimate, one in four people will experience a stroke in their lifetime. These numbers can be reduced as controlling risk factors such as high blood pressure, smoking, atrial fibrillation, exercise, and diet can prevent 90% of strokes. 

The purpose of World Stroke Day is to raise awareness of the effects of having a stroke and to provide people with resources to help them avoid experiencing one. A stroke can be fatal as it occurs when the blood supply to the brain is cut off or if a blood vessel in your brain breaks or leaks. Every year, on World Stroke Day, campaigns are launched worldwide to inform people about the warning signs of brain stroke and its preventive steps. Dr. Sheetu Singh is a well-known member of the medical profession and a vocal supporter of stroke awareness, making her an essential participant in World Stroke Day 2023. She has gained respect and acclaim throughout the globe for her creative research and caring approach to patient care. 

History of World Stroke Day 

World Stroke Day was celebrated on 29th October 2004 at the World Stroke Congress in Vancouver, Canada. The day was declared to raise public awareness later in 2006. The World Stroke Organization was created in 2006 by the union of the World Stroke Federation and the International Stroke Society. Since that time, the World Stroke Organization (WSO) has been in charge of organizing and advocating for World Stroke Day (WSD) across various media. Due to an increase in global stroke data in the 1990s, the idea for World Stroke Day was born. 

The World Stroke Organization (WSO) designated stroke a public health emergency in 2010 in an effort to stop the trend in mortality and disability caused by a lack of knowledge and sufficient access to diagnosis and treatment for all people. According to estimates, stroke-related death and disability cost 11 crore 60 lakh potential years of life in 2016 (a metric for premature mortality). 

The Theme of World Stroke Day 2023 

“Together We Can Be #GreaterThan Stroke” is the theme for World Stroke Day this year. This theme conveys the idea that everyone must work together to avoid stroke and reduce the rising risk factors for stroke.   

Significance of World Stroke Day 

This day is very significant for the healthcare industry. As is well known, stroke is the leading cause of disability and death. A stroke can happen to anyone, anywhere, at any time, for any reason, including stress or medical conditions. Therefore, there was an urgent need to increase awareness of the value of taking preventative steps to lower the stroke rate. This day is devoted to raising awareness among the people through posting on social media, conducting campaigns, conducting community visits, etc. 

Every year on October 29, members, partners, and other interested parties gather to share a common essential message about preventing stroke and taking preventive steps to address and manage the risk factors linked with it. 

What are the Brain Stroke Symptoms 

Here are some warning signals to look out for:

1. Face Drooping: There may be numbness or drooping on one side of the face. So the smile may appear uneven if the person smiles.

2. Arm Weakness: Our arm might feel numb or weak. The individual can be unable to raise both arms or one arm might droop.

3. Speech Slurred: The person who speaks might not be able to talk, or their words might not be intelligible.

4. Time to Call for Help: Call for emergency medical assistance if a person exhibits any of the aforementioned symptoms.

More symptoms include: –

  • Trouble seeing in both or one eye
  • Difficulty in walking. May experience loss of coordination and dizziness
  • Terrible headache with no known cause
  • Experience trouble in talking/speech
  • Numbness in your face or on either side of your body (leg, arm) 

How to Prevent a Stroke? 

The first step in preventing a stroke is to become aware of the many risk factors involved. For instance. 

1. Connection of a stroke with high blood pressure: Half the incidents of stroke worldwide can be directly attributed to high blood pressure. Yes, you are right! A sizable portion of the global population is afflicted by high blood pressure, which frequently manifests itself without any clear symptoms. It’s crucial to keep your blood pressure under control by routinely checking it because hypertension plays a significant role in the development of a stroke. 

2. Relation of a stroke with smoking and alcohol consumption: Drinking and smoking alcoholic beverages increases the risk of a stroke. Regular and heavy smokers are more likely to experience a stroke compared to non-smokers. Similarly, extreme alcohol consumption is also associated with a stroke. 

3. How stroke and exercise are linked: Another major contributor to the global stroke epidemic is physical inactivity. Regular exercise and physical activity is an excellent way to reduce the risk of stroke. 

4. Diet and stroke connection: The best diet is a plant-based one that includes some fish and meat in moderation. Make sure to eat plenty of fruits and veggies. Once or twice a week, you can add sardine or salmon fish to your diet. You can also eat legumes two to three times each week and nuts, particularly tree and peanut nuts. 

5. Role of high cholesterol in stroke: Stroke risk factors include high cholesterol as well. To determine your cholesterol level with a blood test, it’s crucial to have regular checkups. Lowering cholesterol will reduce your risk of having a stroke.

6. Diabetes also increases the risk of a stroke: According to research, diabetes affects 1 in 5 patients who have a stroke. Diabetes patients face more risks than others, and their chances of recovery are significantly lower. So, if you want to avoid having a stroke, it’s time to make some lifestyle changes. If you currently have diabetes, you should also work to manage your condition.

Importance of World Stroke Day 

World Stroke Day is significant in the following ways:

  • Increases awareness of the global impact of stroke.
  • Demonstrates the significance of prompt medical assistance.
  • Promotes cooperation when tackling a pressing public health issue.
  • Empower individuals to make lifestyle changes for stroke prevention.
  • offers survivors a platform on which to tell their stories.
  • Encourages the development of new treatments and innovative research.
  • Sparks conversations on healthcare disparities and access.
  • Encourages the debate of policies that will improve stroke support and care.

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Every year on October 24, the world celebrates World Polio Day. It is a day dedicated to making the world polio-free. It is a day to celebrate the progress made in eradicating polio and to commemorate the achievements of health workers and volunteers who work diligently to achieve the goal. The World Health Organization defines polio as a serious disease caused by a virus that targets the nervous system and can result in permanent paralysis. As a result, it is critical to eradicate polio on a global basis. 

World Polio Day is an event held to recognize the efforts made worldwide by various organizations and groups of people to eradicate poliomyelitis (polio). The World Health Assembly pledged in 1988 to eradicate the polio virus globally. The WHO proclaimed the European region polio-free in 2002. On October 24th, World Polio Day is celebrated to raise awareness about polio vaccination for children and to recognize the efforts of health workers, volunteers, and everyone else who contributes to the cause of polio eradication. To participate in marking World Polio Day 2023, contact Dr. Sheetu Singh. She is an experienced advocate for global health and is actively involved in raising awareness about the ongoing fight against polio. Her knowledge and devotion make her a useful resource for anyone looking forward to contributing to the eradication of this debilitating disease. 

 Significance of World Polio Day 2023

World Polio Day 2023 is significant in its own right. It has been seen for more than a decade. It has a lot of significance. Rotary International and other private groups generate funds to build awareness initiatives about the severity of Polio disease and the significance of administering immunizations to babies in order to keep the country polio-free. 

World Polio Day 2023 is significant as it signifies another year of global commitment to polio eradication. This day serves as a reminder of the significant progress made in the fight against this awful illness, which has been made possible by the collaborative efforts of governments, health organizations, and devoted individuals all around the world. It is time to recognize the incredible decrease in polio incidence and the increasing awareness of the necessity of vaccinations. 

Furthermore, World Polio Day serves as a tremendous call to action, pushing us to keep working together until polio is completely destroyed. In 2023, it represents our unchanging desire to cross the finish line and ensure a polio-free world for future generations. 

History of World Polio Day 

Rotary International launched the World Polio Day campaign in 1985 to recognize the birth anniversary of Jonas Salk, an American physician and researcher who developed the first polio vaccine, which was used in 1955. Later, in 1961, the oral polio vaccine was developed by Albert Sabin to immunize kids with oral polio drops. Polio vaccines are currently highly recommended all around the world as a preventative measure for everyone, particularly tiny and fragile children under the age of five. 

Rotary International and the World Health Organization established the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in 1988. At the time, there were around 3,50,000 cases worldwide. The European countries have now declared themselves to be polio-free. But still Asian countries like Pakistan, Afghanistan, and India still find rare cases across the country. 

Rotary International has been celebrating World Polio Day 2023 for over a decade. This year, they announced a public awareness campaign to encourage parents to vaccinate their children on time. 

The Must-Know Top 4 Polio-Related Facts

  • Polio Mostly Affects Children: Polio is a disease that primarily affects children under the age of five.
  • Permanent Immobility: Polio might cause immobility of certain limbs or permanent paralysis. Poliovirus attacks the respiratory muscles of the afflicted person, causing immobility. Some people may die as a result of the infection.
  • Polio Cases Have Gone Down: Globally, there were over 350,000 polio cases in 1988, while there were just 37 cases in 2016.
  • Single Case: Even if there is just one instance of polio, the disease has the potential to spread.

What Can Be Done to Eradicate Polio? 

Everyone must work together to eradicate polio and make it a thing of the past. Polio could be eradicated forever if everyone works together. To that end, it is critical to mark World Polio Day and raise as much awareness as possible among people around the world. Observing polio awareness day can help people know about the disease’s severe effects and how it can paralyze a person for life. This will assist in sending the message to those living in the remotest part of the globe and acquaint them with the impact of polio on their children and their lives. 

Here are some methods for informing people about World Polio Day and steps to eradicate the deadly illness:

  • Spread Awareness about Polio in Your Community and People around You: If everyone promises to spread the word about the importance of the polio drive, it will make a difference in finding even one case of polio around the world. 
  • Offer Support in Saving Lives: Ignorance is a major disadvantage, especially when dealing with a communicable disease like polio. By initiating various awareness campaigns, it is possible to save lives and eradicate the polio virus completely. 
  • Getting into the Root Cause of Polio: Polio spreads through three kinds of viruses that are contagious and often spread through contact with the infected feces. Thus, polio is caused by handwashing and poor sanitation or by consuming contaminated food and beverages. To reduce the spread of polio, it is vital to raise knowledge about the causes of polio and preventive measures.
  • Use Social Media to Spread the World: On World Polio Day, use the occasion to share polio-related stories on social media platforms so that everyone can see them. You can utilize World Polio Day resources and share them on your social media accounts. 

What are the Different Ways to Observe World Polio Day?

  • Polio is a worldwide issue that requires the participation of global communities to eradicate. To help the cause, you can donate money as well as your time to raise awareness about polio.
  • One can also participate in activities to generate donations for various organizations striving to eradicate polio.
  • This day should be used to vaccinate your children against polio and to eradicate the infection. Vaccination is essential for controlling the spread of the polio virus. 
  • Many asymptotic carriers of the polio virus are likely to spread the disease. Use this day to get every kid vaccinated against this disease.

FAQ’S 

What is Polio?

Polio is a deadly disease that attacks the neurological system of humans via viruses and can result in permanent paralysis.

When did India’s pulse polio immunization campaign begin?

On October 2, 1995, India launched its Pulse Polio Immunization Program. Every year, India sets a pulse polio vaccine day to immunize children with oral polio drops. On March 27, 2014, India and other South-East Asian WHO areas were certified polio-free. 

What are the polio symptoms?

Some symptoms include a stiff neck, high fever, trouble speaking, difficulty breathing or swallowing food, pain in the limbs, exhaustion, paralysis, nausea, and headache.

Polio is caused by which virus?

Polio virus causes polio or poliomyelitis among humans, especially small children.


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Global Handwashing Day is an annual global advocacy day dedicated to promoting soap-free handwashing as a simple, practical, and cost-effective strategy to prevent disease and save lives. The Global Handwashing Partnership founded Global Handwashing Day as an opportunity to design, test, and repeat unique ways to urge people to wash their hands with soap at key times. Global Handwashing Day is celebrated every year on October 15th. 

The first Global Handwashing Day was held in the year 2008 when over 120 million youngsters from more than 70 nations cleaned their hands with soap. Since 2008, community and national leaders have used Global Handwashing Day to raise awareness about handwashing, construct sinks, and tippy taps, and illustrate the ease and benefit of clean hands. Since then, Global Handwashing Day has grown in popularity. Global Handwashing Day is endorsed by schools, governments, civil society, international institutions, NGOs, individuals, private companies, and many more. 

Global Handwashing Day 2023‘s theme is “Clean Hands Are Within Reach.” 

Germs: They are everywhere

Deadly microbes that trigger illnesses like COVID-19, cholera, flu, conjunctivitis, chickenpox. Hepatitis A and B can live on your hands’ skin. How? As they reach your hands when you contact everyday objects such as money coins/notes, public transportation handrails, toilet flushes, washroom door knobs, lift handles, workplace utilities, and so on. They can survive on your hands for hours. So if you eat with unclean hands or touch your nose or eyes with them, you are very certainly infected with COVID-19 or one of the other contact transmission diseases. 

Handwashing- Your Weapon Against Germs 

According to research, consistent hand washing can prevent nearly 1 million deaths per year. So, whenever you touch something outside your home, wash your hands.    

So How Does Handwashing Work?

  • Soap and water/liquid hand wash: Liquid hand wash contains skin-friendly chemicals that are toxic to bacteria. These compounds can kill any surface-dwelling bacteria, viruses, or fungi. When you hold your hands under running water, any remaining bacteria are flushed away, leaving your hands clean and pathogen-free. 
  • Sanitizer: Propanol and isopropanol, which are used to make alcohol-based hand sanitizers, can damage cells (but just germs, not your skin cells). When a virus, bacteria, or fungus comes into contact with alcohol, the protein structure of the virus, bacterium, or fungus is destroyed. If you are traveling, bring an alcohol hand sanitizer with you.  

The Correct Handwashing Technique 

Handwashing is only effective when done correctly. If you are using water and handwashing- 

  • Wet your hands.
  • Using a coin-sized amount of handwash.
  • To make a foam, rub the ingredients together.
  • Rub your fingers together to get the soap into the gaps between your fingers.
  • Now, lather the backs of your hands all the way up to your wrists.
  • Pay close attention to the base of the thumbs, which are sometimes forgotten when handwashing.
  • Make sure you wash the underside of your nails where germs and dirt accumulate.
  • Wash thoroughly with flowing water.
  • Scrub your hands with water and hand wash for at least 20 seconds.

If You are Using Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizer 

  • Squeeze out around 3 mL of hand sanitizer.
  • Rub the alcohol-based sanitizer between your palms and the backs of your hands in the same way you would a conventional hand wash.
  • Pay great attention to the flesh between your fingers. 

Hand Wash vs Hand Sanitizer: Which One Should You Opt for?

In terms of destroying germs, both alcohol-based hand sanitizer and handwash are equally effective. If you are in the office or at home, use water and liquid handwash as this strategy can also remove dirt, which hand sanitizers can’t. Always use hand sanitizers that contain at least 60% alcohol. 

Handwashing is a cost-effective and simple way to keep yourself and your loved ones safe. Prevention is better than cure. So, make a habit of using hand sanitizer and liquid handwash right away. 

A Cost-Effective Intervention 

During the COVID-19 pandemic, 3 in 10 people worldwide could not wash their hands with water and soap at home. Even today, 43% of healthcare workers are unable to wash their hands before delivering care. Similarly, 47% of schools in underdeveloped nations lack handwashing facilities, leaving 900 million pupils globally without a place to wash their hands while at school. There are also huge disparities between low-and high-income countries, and between urban and rural areas. To achieve one of the Sustainable Development Goals set by the United Nations of having everyone be able to wash their hands at home by 2030, governments must move at least four times faster. 

Accelerating advancement would have numerous advantages. Handwashing with soap can reduce:

  • Acute respiratory infections by up to 23%
  • The personal risk of seasonal flu and colds by 36%
  • The risk of endemic diarrhea by 30-48%
  • Infant deaths caused by infections by 27%
  • Missed school days by 43%
  • Increases the risk of pneumonia by up to 50%

Handwashing is also one of the least expensive strategies to promote public health, with a cost of only US$3 per disability-adjusted life year. Investing in programs that encourage soap-free handwashing can potentially yield significant economic benefits. In India, for example, such programs may generate a net return of $5.6 billion. According to WaterAid’s research, all people having access to clean water and soap could cut disease outbreaks by up to 20% and save more than $2.6 trillion in health costs between now and 2040. 

Dr. Sheetu Singh is a shining beacon of inspiration and dedication in public health, making her an ideal role model to honor on Global Handwashing Day 2023. As a renowned specialist in hygiene and infectious disease prevention, she has relentlessly fought for the simple yet critical habit of handwashing, highlighting its critical role in protecting public health. Her dedication to promoting handwashing as a low-cost, life-saving action has unquestionably made the world a safer and healthier place.


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Colds, flu and fever are the first illnesses to show up when the weather and climate change. H3N2 is one Influenza that has received a lot of recent attention. H3N2 is a non-human Influenza that normally circulates in pigs but can infect humans. The viruses known as “swine influenza viruses” commonly affect pigs. They are known as “variant” viruses when they affect people. A few reasons why H3N2 is spreading in India include low vaccination rates (for the flu vaccine) and high pollution. India experiences two peak flu seasons: one from November to February and one throughout the monsoon season. According to current research, H3N2 infects and harms persons over the age of 65 as well as children under the age of 5 years. 

How Can You Catch H3N2 Flu?

H3N2 flu is spread and contagious through droplet infections like COVID-19 and other several seasonal flu. You can catch the virus by coming in touch with an infected surface and touching your eyes, face or mouth immediately. When you come into contact with an infected person, you run the risk of being sick as well. Once your symptoms flourish, they may last up to 5 or 7 days. 

Symptoms of H3N2 Flu

Infection with the H3N2 virus typically lasts between five and seven days, although it can sometimes result in a severe cough that lasts up to three weeks. The symptoms of H3N2 flu are equivalent to other seasonal flu and include:

  • Headache
  • Stuffy or runny nose
  • Chills
  • Sore throat with cough
  • Fever
  • Body ache
  • Diarrhea
  • Fatigue
  • Vomiting
  • Minor congestion

How is H3N2 Flu Diagnosed?

If you suspect that you have H3N2, you should contact your healthcare provider for an evaluation. They might ask for an RT-PCR test to confirm the diagnosis. This test entails collecting a sample from your nose or throat and checking it for the flu virus. Dr. Sheetu Singh can diagnose the H3N2 flu due to common symptoms with other flu, they may recommend patients undergo lab tests to rule out any other illnesses common during the season. 

How is H3N2 Flu Treated?

The treatment for H3N2 flu depends upon the individual’s severity and symptoms. H3N2 cases that aren’t difficult are handled the same as any other seasonal flu: 

  • Drinking enough fluids (soups, juice, water) to stay hydrated
  • Getting plenty of rest
  • Taking over-the-counter medications to help relieve headache, fever and body pain

In some cases of H3N2, Antivirals like Baloxavir, Oseltamivir and Peramivir may be given. Antiviral drugs can reduce the length of the flu and avoid complications when taken within 48 hours after the onset of symptoms. If you fit one of the following high-risk groups, get immediate medical attention:

  • Children under 5 years of age
  • Adults over 65 years of age
  • Pregnant women
  • Individuals with chronic medical conditions like pneumonia, asthma, diabetes, weakened immune system or heart disease. 

Is There A Vaccine For H3N2 Flu?

Flu shots protect the general population from serious illnesses and their symptoms. Unfortunately, there is no specific vaccine to protect against H3N2 flu. The annual flu shot offers defense against three to four influenza virus strains (hence the terms trivalent or quadrivalent). However, these flu vaccines protect you more from the HIN1 viruses and influenza B viruses than the H3N2 viruses. Due to the H3N2 viruses’ propensity for genetic changes, which occur more frequently than those of other viruses, vaccination is less efficient in protecting against them. 

What is the Outlook of H3N2 Flu After Treatment

Despite the rising cases of H3N2 flu, most people can recover at home with or without treatment from their physicians. The flu symptoms last for about a week or two, although a cough and fatigue may persist for an additional two weeks. The following signs may necessitate that you seek immediate treatment:

  • Pressure or pain in the chest
  • Difficulty in breathing or shortness of breath
  • Confusion
  • Severe or persistent vomiting
  • Lightheadedness or dizziness
  • Worsening of existing symptoms 

Can H3N2 Flu Be Prevented?

Despite the lack of an H3N2-specific vaccination, we may still safeguard our loved ones and ourselves by taking the following precautions:

  • Get a flu vaccination every year, preferably before winter arrives
  • Wash your hands frequently with water and soap, especially after using the washroom, before touching and eating your mouth, face and eyes
  • Wear a mask when going in a poorly ventilated indoor space or a crowded area 
  • During flu season, stay away from busy areas where the infection can swiftly spread
  • Avoid interacting with sick people.
  • Avoid taking Antibiotics without your doctor’s prescription

The H3N2 flu is a dangerous viral infection that can have substantial consequences for morbidity and death, especially in populations that are already at risk, such as the elderly and small children. You should stay home if you have the H3N2 flu to stop the virus from spreading. Following the fever’s resolution, it is advised to remain at home for at least 24 hours.


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Most Common Food Allergies in Babies :- It’s an exciting and important experience to introduce new meals to your kid. All too frequently, anxiety, doubts and worries regarding food allergies can dampen this incredibly wonderful period. Over the past decade, there has been a sharp rise in the prevalence of food allergies, with some foods seeing a double- or triple-fold increase. In the US today, around 1 in 13 kids suffer from a food allergy. Over 160 foods have been discovered to date, and any item has the potential to produce an allergic reaction. 

However, milk, eggs, peanuts, soy, wheat, tree nuts, shellfish, fish and sesame are responsible for 90% of all food allergies and are the most common among children and babies. Dr. Sheetu Singh is a renowned pediatric allergist who possesses extensive expertise in the field of pediatric allergies and immunology. She offers invaluable insights, precise diagnosis, and evidence-based advice for treating food allergies in babies thanks to her extensive knowledge of food allergies and their possible impact on a child’s development. 

1. Peanuts 

Peanut allergies typically first manifest in a child’s formative years and are a chronic condition. However, up to 22% of kids will discover that their allergy goes away as they get older and enter adolescence. The symptoms of a peanut allergy can range from moderate to severe, and even a small amount of the protein when digested, can trigger serious allergic reactions. When someone with a peanut allergy consumes peanuts or any food that contains peanuts, their immune system interprets the protein as being dangerous. It then overreacts causing symptoms such as itching, stomach aches, swelling and even life-threatening reactions like Anaphylaxis. 

2. Tree Nuts 

Tree nut allergies are one of the most frequent foods causing acute allergic responses and can be linked to severe allergic reactions like Anaphylaxis, affecting about 2% of the population. If your child has an allergy to one variety of tree nuts, it doesn’t follow that they will also have an allergy to other varieties or even to peanuts. However, there is a high chance that they will be allergic to multiple, closely related types like pecans and walnuts. Even while tree nut allergies typically manifest in childhood and last a lifetime, research suggests that up to 14% of people may eventually overcome their allergies.

3. Milk 

Cow’s milk is one of the most common causes of food allergies, especially in young children. Up to 20% of kids may outgrow this allergy by the age of four, while other kids will continue to have it until adulthood. Babies with milk allergies may experience a variety of symptoms, ranging from mild to severe. In contrast to most allergies, a reaction to milk can cause a colicky, unhappy infant, blood in the stool and indicators of stunted growth in addition to more typical allergy symptoms like hives or even anaphylaxis. True milk allergies are distinct from milk intolerance and lactose intolerance. Intolerance doesn’t involve the immune system but rather causes reactions like bloating, indigestion or gas. 

4. Egg 

About 2% of young children have an egg allergy, which is another fairly frequent food allergy in infants and toddlers. Signs of an egg allergy can include respiratory problems, stomach aches, hives or rashes and in extreme cases, Anaphylaxis. Although egg whites contain the proteins that cause allergies, some kids may only be intolerant to the yolks or the whites and not the other way around. Despite being one of the most widespread allergies, studies have shown that 68% of kids who have an egg allergy will outgrow it by the time they are 16 years old. 

5. Shellfish 

Shellfish is a term for marine animal species crustaceans, Mollusks and Echinoderms. It includes seafood such as crayfish, lobster, crab, shrimp, clams, oysters, scallops and mussels. Some people who acquire a shellfish allergy may respond to any shellfish, while others may only experience an allergic reaction to one or two. Reactions can range from mild to severe with symptoms like swelling, hives, a stuffy nose and even Anaphylaxis. 

6. Fish 

Fish allergies, which include typical seafood allergies like Cod and Salmon, can affect up to 2% of the general population. If you or your child has a fish allergy, it does not necessarily follow that you will also have a shellfish allergy and vice versa. A fish allergy can also have similar symptoms as a reaction to viruses, bacteria, toxins or other contaminants in the fish. 

7. Grains 

Wheat and Oats are some of the most ordinary allergy-inducing grains. A grain allergy develops when your immune system overreacts to proteins found in wheat, as opposed to celiac disease, which is an autoimmune condition that causes a shortage of digestive enzymes for wheat in the intestines. Grains are not only very prominent in food but also in other household products like bath products or cosmetics. 

8. Soy

Only 0.4% of babies will acquire a soy allergy, which is brought on by a protein found in soy or items containing soy, and 70% of kids who do will outgrow the allergy as they get older. Normally, allergic reaction symptoms will include swelling and itchiness and only in the rarest of cases can this turn into Anaphylaxis.


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A food allergy is an immune system response that happens immediately after consuming a particular meal. A relatively small quantity of allergenic food can result in symptoms like gastrointestinal problems, rashes or expanded airways. A food allergy may in some cases result in severe symptoms or even a life-threatening reaction known as Anaphylaxis. An allergy develops when your body’s natural defenses overreact after being exposed to a certain substance, viewing it as an invader and releasing chemicals to defend against it. More than 50 million Americans suffer from allergies of some sort. Most likely, you either know or are one of those folks. 

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, food allergies are estimated to affect 4% to 6% of children and 4% of adults. Food allergy symptoms are most frequent in children and babies, but they can appear at any age. When a person has a food allergy, their immune system responds to specific food proteins as if they were dangerous germs. 

What Causes Food Allergies?

When you have a food allergy, your immune system interprets a particular food or a component of food as being dangerous. In response, your immune system triggers cells to release an antibody known as Immunoglobulin E (IgE) to neutralize the allergy-causing food substance. The majority of food allergies are brought on by specific proteins: 

  1. Peanuts
  2. Crustacean shellfish such as lobster, shrimp and crab
  3. Fish
  4. Cow’s milk
  5. Chicken eggs
  6. Soy
  7. Wheat
  • Pollen-food allergy syndrome 

Many hay fever sufferers have pollen food allergy syndrome, often called oral allergy syndrome. In this condition, certain vegetables and fresh fruits or spices and nuts can trigger an allergic reaction that causes the mouth to tingle or itch. In extreme circumstances, the reaction might cause swelling in the throat or even Anaphylaxis. Proteins in certain vegetables, fruits, spices and nuts cause the reaction because they’re similar to allergy-causing proteins found in certain pollen. 

  • Exercise intolerance and other reactions 

Some people may experience itching and dizziness shortly after eating specific foods and beginning to exercise. Serious cases may even involve Anaphylaxis or Hives. Avoiding particular foods and waiting a couple of hours after eating to exercise will help avoid this issue.

  • Food intolerance and other reactions 

The same signs and symptoms of a food allergy may also be caused by food intolerance or a reaction to another substance you consumed- such as vomiting, nausea, diarrhea and cramping. Depending on the kind of food intolerance you have, you might be able to consume modest quantities of problematic foods without experiencing a reaction. The following are common illnesses whose symptoms can mimic those of a food allergy:

  1. Food poisoning
  2. Sensitivity to food additives
  3. lack of an enzyme necessary for thorough food digestion
  4. Celiac disease
  5. Histamine toxicity

Symptoms of Food Allergy 

Some people’s allergic reactions to certain foods may be uncomfortable but not life-threatening. For other people, an allergic food reaction can be life-threatening and even frightening. Food allergy symptoms commonly develop within a few minutes to 2 hours after eating the offending food. In rare cases, symptoms can not appear for several hours. Among the most common food allergy signs and symptoms include:

  1. Tingling or itching in the mouth
  2. Swelling of the face, lips, throat and tongue or other parts of the body
  3. Itching, hives or Eczema
  4. Nasal congestion, wheezing or trouble breathing
  5. Diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomiting or nausea
  6. Lightheadedness, dizziness or fainting
  7. A fast heartbeat is known as Tachycardia
  8. Streaming eyes and nose
  • Anaphylaxis 

Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction that can occur as a result of a food allergy in some persons. This may result in symptoms and signs that are life-threatening, such as:

  1. shock accompanied by a sharp drop in blood pressure
  2. Tightening and constriction of the airways
  3. Breathing is made challenging by a swollen throat or the sense of a lump in your throat
  4. Rapid pulse
  5. Lightheadedness, dizziness or loss of consciousness 

Treatment of Food Allergy 

Avoiding the food that triggers a reaction has always been the best strategy to treat food allergies. Additionally, when signs of a response appear, they can be treated. Oral Immunotherapy is a relatively investigative and new way to manage food allergies. To raise the temperature at which a reaction occurs, the person must be exposed to an allergen at increasing doses. Oral Immunotherapy is not available for all foods, but the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a treatment for peanut allergy called Palforzia. 

Elimination may entail not only abstaining from eating the particular food but also making sure to never touch, inhale or consume foods containing traces of it. Crockery, Cutlery, Chopping boards and Cooking surfaces may also need to be free of the allergen. A person may need to hunt for alternative sources of some nutrients while on an elimination diet. For instance, milk is a common source of protein and calcium, so people removing this from their diet will need to ensure that they get these nutrients from other foods. People will need to carefully study food and beverage labels. Pet foods, glues, soaps and adhesives may have traces of a food allergen. If you are in search of a dedicated and experienced food allergy doctor, look no further than Dr. Sheetu Singh. She is well-known for her knowledge in the field of allergology and has built a strong reputation for her dedication to and compassion for her patients. 

  • Medications for emergencies 

In the event of an allergic reaction, the following medications are beneficial:-

  1. Antihistamines: These come in the form of liquids, gels or tablets. They are usually effective for people with moderate or mild food allergy symptoms. The majority of allergy symptoms are brought on by histamines, which antihistamines work to suppress.
  2. Epinephrine: This therapy is intended for people with food allergies who risk developing Anaphylaxis. Epinephrine raises blood pressure by tightening the blood vessels. The airways are also relaxed.

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In the United States, allergies are the sixth most common cause of chronic illness. Over 50 million Americans are thought to suffer from some kind of allergy. An allergen, which is a foreign material, triggers an Immunological response or overreaction in people with this illness. Many foreign substances can trigger an allergic reaction, ranging from medications, pets, foods and airborne particles inhaled through the lungs. The symptoms can range from moderate (coughing, itchy eyes, a scratchy throat, sneezing, hives, and a runny nose) to severe and occasionally life-threatening (triggering an asthma attack, difficulty breathing, low blood pressure, and even death) depending on the kind of allergy and the degree of the reaction. 

Types of Allergies 

The 6 Common Types of Allergies :-

  • Food Allergies: Allergens can come from any food. The reaction may be categorized as a food sensitivity or intolerance rather than an allergy depending on the food and how the body reacts. As opposed to allergies, lactose intolerance is the inability to digest the lactose found in milk. Symptoms of a food allergy may include hives, itching, vomiting, nausea, diarrhea and swelling around the mouth. Here are some of the most typical food allergies:
  1. Milk
  2. Eggs
  3. Soy
  4. Peanuts
  5. Shellfish
  6. Wheat
  7. Tree nuts
  8. Fish
  • Drug Allergy: In a drug allergy, immune compounds called Immunoglobulin E antibodies react to the drug. The medicine might trigger allergic symptoms across the body as it circulates throughout the entire body. Symptoms may include wheezing, hives, throat, shortness of breath and mouth swelling, diarrhea, fainting or vomiting. If it is suspected that you may have a drug allergy, Dr. Sheetu Singh can test for an Immunoglobulin E (IgE) response to certain diseases. The most typical medication allergy, affecting 10% of persons, is Penicillin.
  • Latex Allergy: Natural rubber products manufactured from the sap of the Brazilian rubber tree include latex. Inhaling latex fibers or coming into physical contact with a latex product can both cause an allergic reaction. The following are some items that contain Latex: –
  1. Bandages
  2. Rubber balls
  3. Rubber bands
  4. Balloons

Rubber household gloves

Symptoms of a latex allergy typically include itching, swelling and redness after coming into contact with Latex.

  • Insect Allergy: A localized reaction, such as itchiness, swelling, redness or discoloration where the bite or sting occurred is normal; nevertheless, some people experience an excessively severe reaction to bites. Stinging insects like wasps, bees, hornets, fire ants and yellow jackets are most likely to cause an allergic reaction and the reaction can be severe. It’s crucial to get medical assistance right away if you experience an allergic reaction as it may be fatal. These are some possible early signs:
    1. Dizziness
    2. Fainting
    3. Swelling of the tongue, lips or throat
    4. Itching, skin rashes or hives
    5. Having the impression that something terrible is about to occur
    6. Vomiting, stomach pain, diarrhea or bloating
    7. Trouble breathing, shortness of breath or wheezing
  • Airborne Allergens: The most ordinary allergy triggers are small-scale particles found in outdoor and indoor air. These airborne particles have the potential to inflame and swell the sensitive tissue surrounding the eyes as well as the nasal airways. This, in turn causes symptoms commonly associated with allergies such as watery eyes, runny nose, itchy, congestion and sneezing. Common allergens in the air include: 
    1. Dust mites: These are tiny organisms that live in dust in box springs, pillows, mattresses, sofas, carpets and other household objects.
    2. Mold: Mold releases spores, which are inhaled microscopic particles. Mold is frequently found indoors in moist areas like the kitchen and bathroom, as well as outside in Mulch, leaf piles and tree stumps.
    3. Pollen: This is a substance that trees and plants release at specific periods of the year. The spring and fall tend to be the worst seasons for it. 
    4. Animal dander: Pets secrete proteins in their saliva and perspiration that might cause an allergic reaction. These proteins are then expelled as dander or dead skin cells. 
  • Skin Allergens: Skin allergies are more common in people with sensitive skin and skin conditions like Eczema. An allergic reaction may be triggered by chemicals in detergents, skincare products and soaps as well as contact with plants such as poison oak, poison ivy and poison sumac. Symptoms may include inflammation, formation of dry, rash, hives and itchy patches.

Types of Allergic Reactions

The immune system’s response to an allergen causes an allergic reaction. Reactions can be classified as mild, moderate and severe with symptoms as follows:

  • Mild: This type includes nasal symptoms including itchy, watery eyes, congestion, and runny nose as well as localized reactions, such as rash or hives when contact with an allergen occurs.
  • Moderate: These include signs and symptoms that affect different bodily areas, such as wheezing, breathing issues, hives, and swelling or inflammation. 
  • Severe: Anaphylaxis shock is a potentially fatal reaction that needs immediate medical attention. After coming into touch with the allergen, people may experience symptoms like swelling, hives, cramping, vomiting, diarrhea and throat swelling within minutes.

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A medical disease known as an Allergy occurs when the body’s immune system responds improperly to a foreign chemical. An allergen is the substance responsible for the allergy. Allergies are your body’s reaction to normally nontoxic substances. Allergy symptoms range from mild to life-threatening. The common allergic disorders in India comprise allergic rhinitis, insect allergy, Urticaria, Eczema, Decongestants, nasal steroids, Antihistamines, Asthma medicines and Immunotherapy. Since the previous few decades, allergic disorders have significantly increased in prevalence, impacting 20% to 30% of India’s total population.

What are Allergies?

Allergies happen when your body’s immune system reacts to a food or substance that typically doesn’t elicit a reaction in most individuals, such as pollen, bee venom or pet dander. Antibodies are substances that are produced by your immune system. Your immune system produces antibodies that label a specific allergen as hazardous even when it is not when you have allergies. When you come into contact with the allergen, your immune system’s reaction can inflame your skin, airways, sinuses or digestive system. The severity of allergies varies from person to person and can range from slight irritability to anaphylaxis, a potentially life-threatening emergency. Some therapies can make you feel better even though most allergies cannot be cured. 

Causes of Allergy

The development of the allergy is influenced by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. 

  • Genetic predisposition
  • Environmental factors: A broad range of allergens have been found in India owing to diverse vegetation, climatic variation and different food habits
    • The allergic reaction may be brought on by exposure to allergens or irritants.
      • Dust mite droppings
      • Animal dander
      • Fungal spores
      • Pollens grains
      • Latex 
      • Insect sting/bites
    • Diet
    • Medications
    • Pollutant
      • Exhaust fumes
      • Tobacco smoke
    • Exposure to microorganisms (bacteria and viruses) during childhood

The main routes for allergen exposure in India are:

  • Inhalation (airborne pollen grains trigger asthma)
  • Ingestion (food allergy)
  • Contact (contact dermatitis)

Symptoms of Allergy 

An allergic reaction can range in severity from moderate to severe. Different allergies cause different reactions in the body. The following are typical signs and symptoms of an allergic reaction: 

  • Watery eyes
  • Stomach ache
  • Vomiting
  • Sneezing
  • Itchy skin, rash, hives
  • Swelling in body parts exposed to the allergen
  • Difficulty in breathing

An extreme case of allergy that necessitates prompt medical attention is Anaphylaxis which causes swelling and fainting of the lips, tongue and throat. 

Types of Allergy 

An allergy occurs when your body’s immune system sees a certain substance as dangerous. It reacts by causing an allergic reaction. There are several types of allergies. Some allergies are year-round and some are seasonal. While some allergies may be long-life. 

  • Food allergy: It is an allergic response to a food or food ingredients. Common foods that cause allergies are Legumes (black gram, Kidney beans), Eggplant, Seafood (Prawns), milk and egg. 
  • Skin allergy
    • Eczema: Allergic reactions and food exposure cause itchy, dry, and red skin.
    • Contact Dermatitis: An allergic reaction due to contact of skin with an irritant or an allergen may cause a blister, itching, red rash, scaling, cracking and burning.
    • Hives (Urticaria): Raised itchy bumps on the skin due to insect bites, food, medications
    • Angioedema: Swellings of the skin’s deep layers as a result of allergic reactions to certain medicines, foods or insect bites. 
  • Dust allergy: Allergy due to pollen grains, dust motes, fungal spores or animal dander.
  • Insect allergy: Allergy brought on by mosquito bites, bedbug stings, bee and wasp bites.
  • Drug allergy: Allergic reaction following consumption of medication in liquid, tablet or injectable form. 
  • Allergic rhinitis (hay fever): Allergies to airborne pollen grains, dust mites, animal fur and fungi can cause seasonal (during pollen season) or perennial (all year) allergic rhinitis. 

What is an Allergic Reaction?

An allergic reaction is the way your body responds to an allergen. When you come into touch with an allergen for the first time or if you have allergies, your body will manufacture Immunoglobulin E IgE. Your immune system makes antibodies to form IGE. The mucus membrane in the hollow organs that link one another from your mouth to your anus (Gastrointestinal or GI tract) contains IgG antibodies that attach to mast cells (allergy cells) that reside in your skin, respiratory tract (airways) and skin. Allergic reactions are sensitivities to substances called allergens that come into contact with the nose, eyes, skin, respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract. They can be breathed into the swallowed lungs or injected. 

How are Allergies Treated?

Eliminating allergens is a crucial therapy strategy. Although frequently it doesn’t entirely stop allergic reactions. A further option for treating your allergies is to take over-the-counter and prescription allergy drugs. These may include:

  • Antihistamines
      • Fexofenadine
      • Cetirizine
      • Loratadine 
    • Nasal sprays: These medications are highly safe to take every day and quite effective, although it could take them up to a week to start working.
      • Cromolyn Sodium
      • Fluticasone nasal spray
      • Antihistamine nasal sprays
    • Decongestants: These drugs should be taken with caution when treating allergies, due to their more severe side effects and potential risks from prolonged use.
      • Phenylephrine 
      • Oxymetazoline
      • Pseudoephedrine
  • Asthma medications
    • Inhaled steroids
    • Inhaled or oral bronchodilators
    • Injected drugs including Dupilumab, Omalizumab or Benralizumab
    • Oral Antileukotriened including Zafirlukast, Zileuton and Montelukast

Immunotherapy: If avoiding allergens and using over-the-counter and prescription drugs are not enough to control your allergy symptoms, Dr. Sheetu Singh may recommend Immunotherapy (allergy shots) or Sublingual Immunotherapy. Your healthcare professional will gradually increase the dosage over several months while exposing you to modest amounts of allergens.


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When you have sleep apnea, you stop breathing while you’re asleep. Your brain tries to protect you by waking you awake enough to breathe, but this inhibits restful, good sleep. This issue can develop into major consequences over time. However, this illness is frequently quite controllable, especially when prescribed therapies are strictly followed. 

What is Sleep Apnea?

When you have sleep apnea, your breathing stops while you are asleep. You stop breathing while you’re sleeping, which causes sleep apnea. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or central apnea (CASA) are the two conditions that induce these episodes of breathing interruptions during sleep. The consequent lack of oxygen triggers a survival reaction that briefly awakens you so you may start breathing again. That prevents you from getting enough rest to fall asleep and may have other consequences, such as stressing out your heart, which may have fatal results. 

What Causes Sleep Apnea?

The majority of the time, sleep apnea has particular causes, and there is evidence that it may run in families. Overall, there are three basic types of sleep apnea, each of which occurs for a variety of reasons. The types are:

    • Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): This is the more common form. When the muscles in your neck and head relax while you’re sleeping, the tissue in the area presses against your windpipe, resulting in obstructive sleep apnea. That prevents air from passing through it. 
    • Central sleep apnea (CSA): This particular type of sleep apnea is brought on by a cognitive issue. In normal circumstances, your brain controls your breathing constantly, even while you’re asleep. CSA happens when your brain doesn’t send signals to keep breathing-related muscles working. There are numerous causes of CSA, including:
      • Low blood oxygen levels (Hypoxia)
      • Heart failure
      • Nervous system damage, especially in your brainstem
      • Treating obstructive sleep apnea initially with CPAP
      • Nervous system conditions like Amyotrophic lateral Sclerosis
  • Mixed/complex sleep apnea: There is also a complex/mixed type of sleep apnea. This form has a combination of both central events and obstructive events.

What are the Symptoms of Sleep Apnea? 

There are numerous signs of sleep apnea, some of which are easier to identify than others. The symptoms include:

  • Daytime sleepiness
  • Feeling tired or even exhausted when waking up
  • Mood changes
  • Snoring
  • constantly waking up in the middle of the night
  • Disruptions in brain function
  • Unusual breathing patterns
  • Breathing pauses seen by others when sleeping
  • Night sweats and feeling restless at night
  • Insomnia
  • Headaches, especially when waking up

Sleep apnea in children

Children’s sleep apnea can manifest itself in a few distinct ways. Children with sleep apnea exhibit the following symptoms:

  • Loud snoring
  • Bedwetting
  • Hyperactivity, difficulty concentrating or low academic performance
  • Reflux (heartburn) or night sweats
  • Frequent leg or arm movements while asleep
  • sleeping with their neck extended or in unusual positions 

How is Sleep Apnea Diagnosed?

Dr. Sheetu Singh may perform an evaluation based on your symptoms and a history of your sleep habits, which you can offer with the assistance of someone who shares your bed or your household. During sleep testing at a sleep center, your breathing and other bodily systems are frequently monitored overnight as part of an evaluation. Tests to detect sleep apnea include:

  • Nocturnal polysomnography: During this test, you’re curved up to equipment that monitors your lung, heart and brain activity, breathing patterns, leg, arm movements and blood oxygen levels while you sleep. 
  • Home sleep tests: Dr. Sheetu Singh might provide you with simplified tests to be used at home to diagnose sleep apnea. These tests usually measure your blood oxygen, heart rate, breathing patterns and airflow. If central sleep apnea is suspected, she is more likely to recommend Polysomnography in a sleep testing facility, rather than a home sleep test. 

Treatment of Sleep Apnea 

For milder cases of sleep apnea, your healthcare provider may recommend only lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking or losing weight. You might need to alter your sleeping position. Dr. Sheetu Singh might suggest allergy medication if you suffer from nasal allergies. Numerous alternative therapies are available if these steps don’t help your symptoms or if your apnea is mild to severe. 

Therapies for OSA

  • Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP): If you have moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea, Use of a device that produces air pressure through a mask while you sleep may be beneficial. With CPAP, the air pressure is somewhat greater than that of the surrounding air and is just enough to keep your upper airway passages open, preventing apnea and snoring. 
  • Other airway pressure devices: If using a CPAP machine still gives you trouble, you may be able to utilize an alternative airway pressure device (auto-CPAP) that automatically changes the pressure while you sleep. Additionally, some devices deliver bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP). These provide less pressure when you exhale and more pressure when you inhale. 
  • Oral appliances: Wearing oral appliances made to keep your throat open is an additional choice. Oral appliances may be simpler to use, but CPAP is consistently more effective. Some are made to help you open your throat by moving your jaw forward, which may assist with moderate obstructive sleep apnea and snoring. 

Surgery for OSA 

If other treatments have failed, surgery may be another option for people with OSA. Before considering surgery, at least a three-month trial of other treatment options is recommended. Surgery is a good first option for a tiny percentage of persons with certain jaw structural issues. Surgical options might include:

  • Tissue removal
  • Jaw repositioning
  • Tissue shrinkage
  • Nerve stimulation
  • Implants
  • Creating a new air passageway, known as Tracheostomy.

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Treatment for Obstructive Sleep Apnea : Obstructive Sleep Apnea is a common condition that affects 10% to 30% of people. A complete or partial collapse of the upper airway during sleep is a frequent occurrence in people with OSA. This can lead to gasping and snoring, daytime sleepiness, disrupted sleep and morning headaches. A range of treatments have been developed for obstructive sleep apnea including surgical interventions, oral appliances, respirators, implanted nerve stimulators, lifestyle changes and Oropharyngeal exercises. If you have been diagnosed with OSA, then Contact Dr. Sheetu Singh is a reliable resource for individuals seeking expertise and guidance in managing obstructive sleep apnea. 

Positive Airway Pressure Devices 

Positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy is a preferred strategy for treating OSA in both children and adults. PAP machines pressurize air and distribute it to a user’s airway. This aids in maintaining the upper airway open, making it easier for the user to breathe normally and sleep with fewer disruptions. PAP machine users sleep with a mask that covers the nose and mouth or just the nose. The mask is connected by a hose to a tiny machine that is put next to the bed. This device pushes pressured air into the airway through the hose, stabilizing soft tissues that relax as we fall asleep and preventing airway collapse. 

There are several kinds of PAP devices:

  • Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP): CPAP devices are the most well-studied and basic PAP devices. These machines continuously and reliably provide positive air pressure during use. Typically, a medical expert must stay overnight to monitor the device to determine the correct level of pressure.
  • Auto-adjusting positive airway pressure (APAP): Air pressure is automatically adjusted by APAP equipment based on snoring vibrations and breathing patterns. APAP may be appropriate for particular individuals with variable pressure needs. 
  • Bilevel positive airway pressure (BIPAP): When someone uses a BIPAP device, the air pressure is higher when they breathe in and lower when they breathe out. Patients with OSA who don’t respond well to CPAP therapy frequently receive treatment with BiPAP.
  • Adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV): This particular BiPAP device automatically modifies the inhaling pressure to meet the demands of the user. Although ASV devices are frequently used to treat people with both OSA and central sleep apnea (CSA), they are not recommended for those who have specific heart-related medical issues. 

Lifestyle Changes 

If you have obstructive sleep apnea, Dr. Sheetu Singh may identify risk factors that you can address through lifestyle changes and behavior. These adjustments are frequently suggested in addition to PAP therapy. While changing your habits or way of life typically won’t eliminate OSA symptoms, it can produce noticeable benefits. 

  • Reduce weight: According to studies, losing weight makes OSA symptoms better for persons who are overweight or obese. As many factors influence weight including genetics, sustained weight loss can be challenging. However, some individuals can lose weight through exercise, diet, surgery or medication. 
  • Avoid alcohol: Alcohol use can lengthen and increase the frequency of obstructive breathing events. People with obstructive sleep apnea may be advised to avoid alcohol entirely. Those who do decide to drink alcohol ought to avoid doing so right before bed. 
  • Avoid sedatives: Sedatives can exacerbate OSA symptoms similarly to drinking. Ask your doctor if any of the drugs you’re taking, especially those for anxiety or depression, could make your OSA worse. If appropriate, your doctor may prescribe alternative drugs or medications. 
  • Avoid back sleeping: Back sleeping can aggravate OSA. If this is challenging, your doctor might advise wearing a device that vibrates when you lie on your back and wearing it around your chest or neck. 
  • Get exercise: Regular exercise may improve OSA symptoms, even when it doesn’t lead to weight loss. 

Oral Appliances 

Although lifestyle changes and positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy are the first-line treatments for obstructive sleep apnea, an oral appliance could be recommended if PAP therapy is ineffective or extremely irritating. Oral appliances may also be helpful while traveling as they are very portable and don’t need electricity. There are usually two types of oral appliances used to treat obstructive sleep apnea.

  • Mandibular advancement devices (MAD): MAD can effectively treat moderate and mild OSA and may improve symptoms in some patients with severe OSA. These one- or two-piece devices are made specifically for the mouth and jaw of the patient. They function by advancing the lower jaw, which aids in widening the upper airway.
  • Tongue-retaining devices (TRD): TRD may be used if MAD is not beneficial. To keep the upper airway open, TRDs employ suction to force the tongue forward. The evidence suggests that some users of these devices experience about half as many breathing interruptions during the night, even though they have not been investigated as well. 

Surgery 

Similar to oral appliances, surgery for obstructive sleep apnea is usually a second-line therapy that is recommended when a patient does not respond well to positive airway pressure therapy and lifestyle changes. In general, surgery doesn’t entirely cure OSA, but it can significantly improve symptoms. 

  • Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP): This includes reshaping the soft palate to open the airway. UPPP may include the reduction or removal of the Uvula.
  • Tonsillectomy and Adenoidectomy: These upper throat surgeries require the removal of adenoids, enlarged tonsils or both to increase airflow in the throat.
  • Lower throat surgeries: Also intended to remove tissues obstructing the airway are lower pharyngeal or throat surgeries for OSA. Surgery to reduce the tongue is frequently one of these. 
  • Global upper airway surgeries: These include surgeries to realign the upper and lower jaws to clear obstructions and tighten the soft tissue in the throat to prevent it from collapsing too easily.
  • Nasal surgeries: Nasal surgeries usually involve changing the nasal cavity in some way so that other OSA therapies such as oral appliances and PAP work better. 

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Obstructive Sleep Apnea is characterized by episodes of breathing cessation or shallow breathing in sleep. These occurrences are brought on by the full or partial collapse of the upper airway. Most frequently, snoring, oxygen desaturation and brief awakenings from sleep are linked to respiratory events. Sleep apnea is usually worse during lying and rapid eye movement sleep. Diagnosing and managing obstructive sleep apnea is critical for improving the overall health and quality of life of affected individuals. An extensive review of the patient’s medical history and symptoms, such as severe daytime sleepiness, loud snoring, and observed breathing pauses during sleep, is usually the first step in the diagnosis process. 

The monitoring of several physiological factors while a person sleeps, including airflow, oxygen saturation and brain activity is known as Polysomnography and is an important diagnostic technique for OSA. Home sleep apnea tests are also increasingly used for initial screening. The severity of the condition determines the management techniques for OSA once it has been diagnosed. For mild cases, lifestyle changes like losing weight, abstaining from alcohol and sedatives, and positional therapy can be helpful. Obstructive sleep apnea affects 34% of men and 17% of men in the US and has a similar prevalence in other countries. 

Approach Considerations 

Obstructive sleep apnea should be treated and diagnosed promptly. For OSA patients, board-certified sleep specialists assess polysomnography (PSG) data and propose a course of treatment. The severity of the sleep-disordered breathing affects the course of treatment. People with mild to moderate apnea have more options, however those with moderate to severe apnea should use nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) as a treatment. 

Conservative nonsurgical treatment includes general and behavioral strategies like weight loss, abstaining from alcohol for 4-6 hours before bedtime and sleeping on one’s side rather than their stomach or back. Weight loss lowers the risk of OSA as obesity is a primary indicator of the condition. The benefits of weight reduction in patients with sleep-disordered breathing include the following: 

  • Lowered blood pressure
  • Decreased RDI
  • improved lung function and arterial blood gas values
  • Improved snoring and sleep structure
  • Optimal CPAP pressure may need to be reduced.

Observations 

The most ordinary presenting symptom of obstructive sleep apnea is excessive sleepiness, although this symptom is reported by as few as 15% to 50% of people with OSA in the general population. A 2- to 3-fold greater risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders is linked to OSA. In many patients, obstructive sleep apnea can be diagnosed with home sleep apnea testing, which has a sensitivity of approximately 80%. Successful interventions comprise weight reduction and physical activity, positive airway pressure therapy, employing oral devices that reposition the jaw while sleeping, and surgical alterations to enhance the upper airway through adjustments to either the pharyngeal soft tissues or facial skeleton. 

In some patients with a body mass index under 32, Hypoglossal nerve stimulation is beneficial. There are currently no effective Pharmacological therapies. Positive airway pressure therapy lowers blood pressure, particularly in individuals with resistant hypertension. Randomized clinical trials of OSA treatment however, have not found any appreciable reduction in the rates of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events. 

Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea 

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) must be diagnosed for the affected person to receive successful treatment and see an improvement in their quality of life. Patients frequently go through a detailed medical history evaluation that includes queries regarding symptoms like exhaustion, excessive daytime sleepiness, loud snoring, and choking or gasping while sleeping.  One of the most frequent diagnostic tools for OSA is Polysomnography, an overnight sleep study that tracks many physiological factors, including brain activity, heart rate, airflow,and oxygen levels during sleep. 

Management of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Treatment for OSA can frequently correct its systemic consequences, but it may also result in lasting brain changes that hinder the full recovery of psychomotor functioning deficiencies. Effective management of OSA can be categorized as either a “cure” or “success”. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is often treated using a variety of approaches designed to address the underlying causes and enhance the patient’s quality of life. Numerous tactics are used in efficient therapies. Due to the fact that being overweight might contribute to airway obstruction, lifestyle changes including weight loss and consistent exercise are frequently advised. 

Conclusion and Relevance 

Obstructive Sleep Apnea is common and the prevalence is increasing with the increased prevalence of obesity. While daytime sleepiness is among the most prevalent symptoms of OSA, many people do not experience any symptoms at all. Patients with OSA who are asymptomatic or whose symptoms are only mildly concerning and do not appear to pose a risk to driving safety may be treated with behavioral techniques like exercise and weight loss. Interventions such as positive airway pressure are recommended for those with resistant hypertension and excessive sleepiness. There is currently insufficient high-quality evidence to support managing asymptomatic OSA to lower cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. If you’re seeking expert guidance for the diagnosis and management of Obstructive Sleep Apnea, look no further than contacting Dr. Sheetu Singh. She is a well-respected expert in the field of sleep medicine, renowned for her depth of understanding and caring for her patients.


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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary and Asthma Disease are long-term respiratory conditions that make it difficult for an individual to breathe. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate more than 25 million people in the United States had Asthma as of 2019, including 5 million children under 18 years. Although neither ailment has a cure, there are treatments available. Inhaling medication into the airways directly with a nebulizer or a portable inhaler is the most popular form of therapy. These medicines help to diminish inflammation, clear any mucus build-up in the lungs and open up the airways. Some of the most ordinary inhaler types for COPD and Asthma include Beta-agonists, Corticosteroids, combination inhalers and Anticholinergics. 

Types of Inhalers 

Most types of inhalers are small enough to fit in a purse or pocket. This includes dry powder inhalers (DPI), metered-dose inhalers (MDI) and soft mist inhalers (SMI). The basic operation of each type of handheld inhaler is the same. They deliver medication through inhalation. To use an inhaler, an individual closes their mouth around the mouthpiece and inhales the drug from the canister. However, there are a few differences. For example:

  • MDI carries medicine in Aerosol form. The user must press the canister, to ignite the propellant and breathe in at the same time. 
  • DPI transfers medication without a propellant. The individual inhales the medicine into their lungs with their inward breath.
  • SMI is related to DPI as the individual uses their inward breath to inhale the medicine. However, SMIs have more particles than MIDs and DPI and the drug enters the lungs more gradually, allowing the patient to inhale more medication.

Each kind of inhaler has benefits and drawbacks and the amount of medication that enters a user’s lungs determines how effective the device is. Dr. Sheetu Singh consider a person’s attribute or features to determine which inhaler is best, including:

  • Cognitive status
  • Age
  • Ability to coordinate inhalation with activation of the canister
  • Manual dexterity

However, while managing Asthma in children under the age of 5, Dr. Sheetu Singh typically prescribes a valved holding chamber with a mask. The mask allows the kid to take diverse breaths to get the same amount of medication and drugs as breathing in one large puff. They may also recommend a nebulizer for young toddlers. 

Nebulizers 

Nebulizers are different types of inhaler devices that involve breathing through a mask. They consist of a container of liquid medicine, an air compressor and a tube that connects the two. A person uses a mask or a mouthpiece above the medicine container to inhale the mist. Nebulizers are available in electric versions and battery-powered. While they are larger than handheld inhalers, such as young children, they are perfect for those who might not be able to utilize an inhaler successfully. 

Inhalers for Asthma

When an individual has an Asthma attack, the airways in their lungs become narrow and inflamed and produce mucus which restricts the air supply. To treat chronic asthma symptoms and to relieve asthma attacks, asthma inhalers administer medication to the lungs. The medication in these inhaler types depends on a person’s needs and requirements. 

Corticosteroids 

Inflammation in the airway is reduced by Corticosteroids, which also prevent Asthma attacks. These medications are long-term and controllers. The goal of controller asthma medication is to prevent the progression of asthma symptoms by gradually lowering airway inflammation. Common types of corticosteroids include:

  • Budesonide (Pulmicort Flexhaler)
  • Beclomethasone (Qvar)
  • Fluticasone (Flovent Diskus, Flovent HFA, Arnuity Ellipta)
  • Ciclesonide (Alvesco)
  • Mometasone (Asmanex)

Long-acting Beta-agonists 

LABA facilitates better breathing by relaxing the muscles that surround the airways of the lungs and maintaining their openness. The common combination inhalers include:

  • Budesonide and Formoterol (Symbicort)
  • Fluticasone and Salmeterol (Advair Diskus, Advair HFA)
  • Fluticasone and Vilanterol (Breo Ellipta)
  • Mometasone and Formoterol (Dulera)

Anticholinergics 

Another sort of long-term controller medication is Anticholinergics. They assist in diminishing mucus production, widen the airways and relax the lung muscles. Tiotropium Bromide is an asthma controller medicine that Dr. Sheetu Singh is often prescribed with other controller therapies. 

Short-acting Beta-agonists 

Quick-acting beta-agonists or short-acting beta-agonists are rescue and quick-relief medicines. They work to open the airway and relieve symptoms quickly during an asthma flare-up. Common short-acting beta-agonists include:

  • Levalbuterol (Xopenex HFA)
  • Albuterol (ProAir HFA, Ventolin HFA)
  • Pirbuterol (Maxair Autohaler)

Inhalers for COPD 

COPD refers to multiple respiratory conditions that affect an individual’s ability to breathe including Emphysema, Chronic Bronchitis and Asthma. People with COPD disease might use inhaler devices to deliver medicine directly into their airways. COPD inhalers include quick-relief and rescue medications and long-term and controller medicines. 

Corticosteroids 

The common inhaled corticosteroids for COPD include:-

  • Fluticasone (Flovent)
  • Beclomethasone (Qvar)
  • Mometasone (Asmanex)
  • Ciclesonide (Alvesco)
  • Flunisolide (Aerobid)
  • Budesonide (pulmicort)

Beta-agonist inhaler types 

The most popular inhaled beta-agonists, which last anywhere from 6 to 12 hours, are LABAs. These include:

  • Formoterol (Foradil; Perforomist)
  • Arformoterol (Brovana)
  • Salmeterol (Serevant)

Anticholinergics 

Inhaled Anticholinergics for COPD include:

  • Glycopyrronium (Seebri Neohaler)
  • Aclidinium (Tudorza Pressair)
  • Tiotropium (Spiriva)
  • Ipratropium (Atrovent)
  • Umeclidinium (Incruse Ellipta)

Quick-acting Beta-agonists

Bronchodilators or short or quick-acting beta-agonists offer fast relief when a person has symptoms of a COPD flare-up such as coughing, wheezing and difficulty in breathing. Common bronchodilators include:

  • Levalbuterol (Xopenex HFA)
  • Albuterol (ProAir HFA, Proventil HFA, Ventolin HFA)
  • Albuterol and Ipratropium (Combivent)

Quick-acting beta-agonists usually come in an MDI inhaler, however a patient may occasionally utilize a nebulizer. These medications could have negative effects like:

  • Anxiety
  • Headache
  • Tremor
  • Restlessness
  • Irregular or increased heartbeats.

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When it comes to our health, knowledge is power. Understanding medical conditions and their implications can make a world of difference, both in prevention and treatment. One such condition we’ll explore in this blog is Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (HP). It may sound complex, but we’ll break it down into simple terms, making it easy for everyone to comprehend. By the end of this article, you’ll have a clearer understanding of what HP is, its causes, symptoms, and potential treatments.

What is Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis?

What is Hypersensitivity PneumonitisHypersensitivity Pneumonitis, often referred to as HP, is a lung disease characterized by inflammation of the lung tissue. It occurs when your body’s immune system overreacts to inhaled allergens or irritants. Imagine your lungs as a sensitive alarm system – with HP, it’s like the alarm goes off even when there’s no real threat.

Causes of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

Causes of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

Understanding the causes of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (HP) is crucial in preventing and managing the condition. HP is primarily triggered by exposure to certain allergens or irritants. These can include:

  • Organic Dusts: Organic materials such as mold, fungi, and bacteria found in environments like farming or bird handling can lead to HP.
  • Chemicals: Exposure to certain chemicals, like those found in pesticides or plastics, can also increase the risk of developing HP.
  • Animal Droppings: If you’re a pet owner or work with animals, you might be at risk due to exposure to proteins in animal droppings.
  • Occupational Hazards: Some professions, like agriculture or woodworking, come with an increased risk of HP due to regular exposure to potential triggers.
  • Home Environment: Even your home can harbor HP triggers, especially if there’s mold or bacteria in damp areas.

Symptoms of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

Symptoms of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

Recognizing the symptoms of  Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (HP)  is essential for early diagnosis and treatment. The signs of HP can be similar to other respiratory conditions, so pay close attention if you experience:

  • Coughing: Persistent dry cough is a common early symptom of HP.
  • Shortness of Breath: As the condition progresses, you may find it increasingly difficult to catch your breath, especially during physical activity.
  • Fever: Some individuals with HP may experience fever, particularly if the condition becomes severe.
  • Fatigue: Feeling excessively tired even after adequate rest can be a symptom of HP.
  • Chest Tightness: You might feel a sensation of tightness or discomfort in your chest.
  • Weight Loss: Unexplained weight loss is another potential symptom.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Diagnosis and Treatment of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

If you suspect you may have HP based on the symptoms, it’s crucial to consult a healthcare professional. They can perform tests, such as pulmonary function tests and imaging scans, to confirm the diagnosis. Once diagnosed, treatment options will be discussed, which may include:

  • Avoiding Triggers: The first step in managing HP is to identify and avoid the substances or environments that trigger your symptoms.
  • Medications: Depending on the severity, your doctor may prescribe medications, such as corticosteroids, to reduce inflammation in your lungs.
  • Oxygen Therapy: In severe cases, oxygen therapy can help improve oxygen levels in your blood.
  • Pulmonary Rehabilitation: This involves a combination of exercise, education, and support to help you manage your condition and improve your quality of life.

In the next part of this blog, we will delve deeper into the risk factors associated with HP and provide practical tips on how to reduce your exposure to potential triggers. Stay tuned for valuable insights that can help you protect your lung health.

Risk Factors for Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

Understanding the risk factors associated with HP can help you take proactive steps to minimize your chances of developing this condition. Here are some factors to consider:

  • Occupational Exposure: Jobs that involve regular exposure to organic dust, chemicals, or animal proteins can significantly increase the risk of HP. It’s crucial for individuals in such professions to use proper protective equipment and follow safety guidelines.
  • Environmental Factors: Even if you’re not in an occupation with known triggers, your home environment can play a role. Damp and moldy areas, as well as the presence of birds or pets, can contribute to HP. Regular home maintenance and good ventilation are essential.
  • Genetic Predisposition: Some individuals may have a genetic predisposition to develop HP. If you have a family history of lung diseases or allergies, it’s important to be vigilant about potential triggers.
  • Immune System Health: A weakened immune system can make you more susceptible to HP. Ensuring you maintain a healthy lifestyle with a balanced diet, regular exercise, and adequate sleep can help boost your immune system.

Preventing Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

Prevention is always better than cure, and when it comes to HP, taking proactive steps to reduce your risk is crucial. Here are some strategies to consider:

  • Know Your Triggers: If you work in an environment where you may be exposed to potential HP triggers, educate yourself about the risks and take necessary precautions. Employers should provide proper safety equipment and training.
  • Maintain a Clean Home: Regularly inspect your home for signs of mold or dampness, especially in basements and bathrooms. Keep pets’ living areas clean and well-ventilated.
  • Use Protective Gear: If you’re in an occupation with known hazards, always use appropriate protective gear such as masks, gloves, and goggles to reduce exposure.
  • Monitor Your Health: Be attentive to any respiratory symptoms, especially if you work in a high-risk environment. Early detection and intervention can make a significant difference in managing HP.
  • Consult Your Doctor: If you suspect you have HP or are at risk, consult a healthcare professional for a thorough evaluation and guidance on managing your condition.
  • Allergen-Proof  Your Home: If you have known allergies or sensitivities, take steps to allergen-proof your home. This may include using air purifiers, regularly cleaning and vacuuming, and keeping windows closed during high pollen seasons.

By taking these precautions, you can significantly reduce your risk of developing Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis. Remember, your lung health is essential for overall well-being, and it’s worth investing time and effort in protecting it.

In case you feel the symptoms of HP ever, then here Dr. Sheetu Singh (MD, MNAMS, FRCP) is experienced with expert knowledge to cure your problem. Consult with her once, and we assure you will receive the expected relief and results.


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Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease can receive treatments using a variety of inhaler devices and novel inhalers are continually being developed. The preparation and use techniques differ between each type of device and each has advantages and downsides. Many inhalers are used incorrectly because of inconsistent usage instructions, which can easily mislead both patients and medical professionals. 

The inhaled route is preferred for the delivery of Corticosteroids and Bronchodilators used in the maintenance therapy of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and Asthma. Small pharmacological doses are directly administered to the target area, resulting in a quick beginning of action and a minimal incidence of side effects. It is believed that inhaled medications must be stored in the lungs to have a positive impact. If you or someone you know is seeking guidance on inhaler treatment options for COPD, then Contact Dr. Sheetu Singh, a knowledgeable and experienced pulmonologist who specializes in respiratory care. Whether you are looking to explore dry powder inhalers, soft mist inhalers or other treatment options tailored to your specific requirements. She can offer priceless advice to assist you in managing your condition and enhancing your quality of life.

Pressurized Metered Dose Inhalers 

The PMDI was initially designed in 1956 to provide an inhaled bronchodilator delivery system with a multi-dose capacity and repeatable dosage features. PMDI contain propellants which are currently being changed from Chlorofluorocarbons to Hydrofluoroalkanes (HFAs) because the former damage the ozone layer in the stratosphere. Even with adequate inhaler technique, the majority of PMDIs only deposit 10–20% of the dose in the lungs; the remainder is deposited primarily in the Oropharynx. Recent formulations that formulate the medicine as a solution in HFA propellant as opposed to a suspension of micronized particles may result in higher lung deposition and decreased Oropharyngeal deposition. 

Using the proper PMDI technique entails firing the device while inhaling slowly and deeply, followed by a breath-holding pause to allow particles to settle on the airway surfaces. Most instructions recommend placing the mouthpiece between closed lips, but it’s also possible to hold the inhaler between open lips or even a few centimeters from the open mouth. PMDI is still widely used to administer inhaled medicines for asthma and COPD despite the challenges of utilizing them correctly: Pressurised Metered  Dose Inhalers contain at least 100 doses and are portable, convenient, compact and relatively inexpensive. 

Breath-Actuated Pressurised Metered-Dose Inhalers 

Patients inability to coordinate their firing and inhaling is typically regarded as the most significant issue with PMDI. Two such devices Autohaler and Easibreathe are currently being marketed and several others are in development. In BA PMDI, a mechanism that fires the device is activated by the patient inhaling via the device, synchronizing the firing and inhaling processes. These devices can achieve good lung deposition and clinical efficacy in patients unable to use a standard press and who have breathing difficulties. 

Pressurized Metered-Dose Inhalers Plus Spacer Devices 

Spacer devices are attachments to the inhaler mouthpiece with a volume ranging from 20-750ml. The mouthpiece of several of these devices has a one-way valve that keeps patients from accidentally blowing the dose away after firing it. The one-way valve must be activated by a powerful enough inhale, though otherwise the dose will not be administered. Spacers assist in overcoming coordination problems as inhalation can take place either as the device is fired after a short pause with the latter method being recommended for some models. Old Freon issues are unlikely with spacer devices, due to the source of aerosol generation being further away from the mouth than it is with a PMDI. Ideally, each PMDI dose should be inhaled separately from the spacer. While spacers are good drug-delivery devices, They have the apparent drawback of making the delivery system as a whole less portable, compact and practical than a typical PMDI. 

DRY Powder Inhalers 

Dry powder inhalers have emerged as valuable treatment options for individuals suffering from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. DPIs are efficient and effective as they deliver medication directly to the lungs in the form of dry powder. One of the foremost advantages of DPI is its ease of use. It is especially helpful for people with COPD who might have trouble controlling their breathing when using an inhaler. Dry powder inhalers are also portable, allowing patients to carry their medication and drugs with them for quick relief when needed. 

Moreover, they provide an instant onset of action, offering immediate relief of symptoms like wheezing and shortness of breath. The availability of DPIs in a range of formulations, such as bronchodilators and corticosteroids, enables the development of individualized treatment programs that are suited to the unique requirements of COPD patients. As a whole, dry powder inhalers have transformed the way COPD is managed, providing patients with this chronic respiratory ailment with a convenient and efficient way to manage their symptoms, increased lung function and a higher quality of life.

Soft Mist Inhalers 

The use of soft mist inhalers has significantly improved the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). These devices provide medication in the form of a fine mist, allowing for a leisurely and gentle inhaling process that is especially helpful for COPD patients who may have trouble with the strong inhalation required by some other inhaler forms. SMI are user-friendly, they are appropriate for a variety of patients, including those with reduced lung function, as they do not require strong hand-breath coordination. They also provide precision dosing and have the ability to deliver a mix of bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory drugs, treating both immediate symptoms and underlying inflammation.


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Metered dose inhalers, dry powder inhalers and nebulizers are modes of aerosol drug delivery that are used to treat respiratory disorders such as Obstructive Lung Disorders, Asthma, Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, Cystic Fibrosis and Infectious Pulmonary Disease. A spacer is an external device connected to an MDI, to enhance drug administration through improved actuation and inhalation coordination. To inquire about inhalers, contact Dr. Sheetu Singh, a knowledgeable and experienced healthcare professional specializing in respiratory care. She can offer you professional advice and suggestions that are suited to your unique needs. 

What is a Metered Dose Inhaler?

Metered dose inhalers are tiny devices that propel a medicinal spray into the airways. Dry powder inhalers also administer medication, but the powdered medication needs to be inhaled deeply to reach the airways. 

The advantages of MDIs is as follows:

  • Multidose delivery capability
  • Portability
  • Lower risk of bacterial contamination

The disadvantages of MDIs are as follows:

  • the necessity of coordinated actuation and inhalation
  • Oropharyngeal drug deposition

What are Nebulizers?

Nebulizers are devices that convert liquid medications into a tiny mist that may be inhaled easily. They can be powered by batteries or electricity. A mouthpiece or facemask that is placed over the nose and mouth allows the mist to exit the machine through a tube. Children frequently utilize nebulizers as they don’t need to exert any effort to breathe the drug into their airways. 

Nebulizers have the advantages listed below:

  • Patients who are unable to employ alternative inhalation techniques should receive therapy
  • Permit administering high amounts of medication
  • Patient coordination is not required

The following are the disadvantages of Nebulizers: 

  • Higher cost
  • Decreased portability
  • Longer administration time and set-up
  • A supply of compressed air or oxygen (a jet nebulizer) may be required

What are Spacers?

Spacers are canisters that attach to the mouthpieces of metered dose inhalers making  the inhalers easier to use. Spacers make it easy for the user to use the inhaler and assist with the right dosage of the medication to be delivered.

What are Metered Dose Inhalers, Spacers and Nebulizers Used For?

Breathing diseases like asthma are typically treated with nebulizers, dry powder inhalers, and metered dose inhalers:

  • Asthma
  • Obstructive lung disease (also known as COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)
    • Chronic bronchitis
    • Emphysema
  • Pulmonary Arterial hypertension
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Infectious pulmonary disease

Aerosol drug delivery may also be used with some types of non-respiratory therapy. Inhalers can be used to administer medication for:

  • Pain relief
  • Diabetes
  • Genetic diseases
  • Thyroid disorders

What are Metered Dose Inhaler and Nebulizer Medications?

Metered dose inhaler medications include:-

  • Beclomethasone Dipropionate (QVAR)
  • Ventolin, Proventil, Ventolin HFA, Proventil HFA, and Proair HFA are variants of albuterol sulfate
  • Cromolyn sodium (Intal)
  • Ciclesonide (Alvesco)
  • Flunisolide Hemihydrate (Aerospan HFA)
  • Flunisolide (AeroBid, AeroBid-M)
  • Fluticasone Propionate (Flovent HFA)
  • pratropium Bromide/Albuterol Sulfate (Combivent Respimat)
  • Mometasone/Formoterol (Dulera)
  • Triamcinolone Acetonide (Azmacort)

Dry powder inhaler medications include:

  • Budesonide (Pulmicort Flexhaler)
  • budesonide/Formoterol HFA (Symbicort)
  • Fluticasone propionate (Flovent Diskus)
  • Formoterol Furmate (Foradil Aerolizer)
  • Mometasone Furoate (Asmanex Twisthaler)
  • Salmeterol Xinafoate (Serevent Diskus)
  • Tiotropium Bromide (Spiriva Handihaler) 

Nebulizer medications include:

  • Albuterol Sulfate (Proventil, AccuNeb)
  • Arformoterol Tartrate (Brovana)
  • Budesonide (Pulmicort Respules)
  • Formoterol Fumarate (Perforomist)
  • Cromolyn Sodium (Intal)
  • Ipratropium Bromide 
  • Levalbuterol Hydrochloride (Xopenex)

How Do You Use Metered Dose Inhalers, Spacers and Nebulizers?

The thorough method for employing a metered dose inhaler is: 

  • Take off the cap, then hold the inhaler vertically.
  • Shake the inhaler
  • Exhale gently for three to five seconds.
  • Slowly take a breath through your mouth while releasing the medication by pressing the inhaler once.
  • If possible, hold the breath for ten seconds to allow the medicine to reach deep into the lungs
  • If more than 1 puff (actuation) is required, follow the procedure above again, pausing for at least a minute in between each actuation.

The general technique for using a spacer is:-

  • Make sure the spacer is clean and put together properly by the manufacturer’s instructions.
  • Shake the inhaler canister well to mix the medication
  • Take it off the cap from the inhaler mouthpiece
  • Insert the mouthpiece of the inhaler into the open end of the spacer. Make sure it fits tightly
  • Breathe out fully to empty your lungs. This makes it more likely that the drug will be deeply inhaled into your lungs.
  • To inhale medicine into the spacer, press down on the inhaler canister once.
  • Start taking calm, deep breaths via your mouth once the drug has been released into the spacer. It ought to take 5-7 seconds to complete this.
  • Remove the spacer from your mouth after taking the prescription, then hold your breath for ten seconds to help the medicine penetrate your lungs completely.
  • Breath out gently and slowly
  • After use, clean the spacer as per the manufacturer’s instructions and allow it to air dry. 

An air compressor, nebulizer cup, mouthpiece or mask and medicine measuring equipment are all included in a nebulizer kit. The general method for using a nebulizer is:

  • Put together the nebulizer kit and plug in the power source.
  • Close the nebulizer cup after adding the prescribed dosage of medicine.
  • The mouthpiece or mask should be attached to the top of the nebulizer cup.
  • Connect the air compressor with the tubing at the nebulizer cup’s base.
  • activate on the gas pressure source at the reservoir’s mouth.
  • Inhale slowly through your mouth, occasionally taking deep breaths.
  • Confirm that a mist is produced by turning the nebulizer on.
  • If a mask is worn, make sure it is properly fastened.
  • Breathe through the mouth for the duration of the therapy. 
  • If the nebulizer begins to splutter, turn it off.Contact Dr. Sheetu Singh

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What is MDI?

A pressurized sprayer known as a metered dose inhaler provides a specific dosage of medication. It is typically used to treat respiratory conditions like COPD and Asthma. Metered dose inhalers are simple to use. It comprises a compact, pressurized container holding medication, a dosage indicator and a mouthpiece or mask used for administering the medication. When the MDI is activated, the patient inhales the small mist or spray of medication that is released in a specific amount into their lungs. MDIs are a practical and efficient approach to delivering medicines straight to the airways, offering rapid relief from bronchospasm and inflammation. 

Advantages of Metered Dose Inhaler:-

  • Compact and portable
  • Cheaper than DPIs
  • Minimal preparation
  • The use of a spacer enhances the administration of drugs 
  • Accurate dose
  • Short delivery time
  • Drug preparation is not required

Disadvantages of Metered Dose Inhaler: –

  • require coordination between the actuation and inhalation if not utilized with a spacer
  • For persons who lead an active lifestyle, spacers may not always be practical or available, and they may not always be covered by drug insurance
  • High oropharyngeal deposition
  • Requires propellants
  • The technique is crucial for drug distribution

How to use a Metered Dose Inhaler?

Managing respiratory diseases like asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requires the appropriate use of a metered dose inhaler (MDI). Start by taking off the cap and shaking the inhaler to make sure the medication is thoroughly mixed before using an MDI. To prepare your lungs, take a deep breath, then slowly exhale while standing or sitting up straight. You should inhale deeply as you gently start to press down on the canister to release a puff of the medication. Hold your breath for around 10 seconds to help the medicine reach your airways deeply. 

What is DPI?

A Dry Powder Inhaler is a type of inhaler commonly used to deliver medications such as inhaled corticosteroids into the lungs. This inhaler is breath-activated. The drug is released only when you take a fast, deep breath in through the inhaler. This is distinct from a metered dose inhaler, which propels drugs into the lungs. Advair Diskus, Asmanex, and Pulmicort Flexhaler are a few examples of dry powder inhalers. DPIs are an effective and feasible method to manage respiratory problems, but for optimal treatment results, patients must maintain adequate inhalation techniques.

Advantages of Dry Powder Inhaler:-

  • Portable and compact
  • No need for a spacer
  • No propellant
  • Actuation is caused by deep inspiration, hence there is no need to coordinate it with inhalation
  • Add dose counters that show how many doses are remaining in the device

Disadvantages of Dry Powder Inhaler: –

  • More costly
  • The released dose could be impacted by both humidity and temperature in the environment
  • Greater inspiratory flow rates are necessary for pulmonary deposition of excellent quality
  • Some certain lactose
  • Some have earlier expiration dates than others

How to use Dry Powder Inhaler? 

A dry powder inhaler is an Asthma treatment option for older teens and kids. A DPI makes it possible for the medication to enter the lungs deeply. These inhalers store the medication as a dry powder, as opposed to other inhalers that puff the medication. You must breathe quickly and deeply to get the medication into your lungs as it is inside a powder. If you have any further queries about dry powdered inhalers, contact Dr. Sheetu Singh, Her passion for improving the lives of individuals with respiratory conditions was truly inspiring. 

What is the Difference Between MDI and DPI 

Metered Dose Inhalers and Dry Powder Inhalers are two common devices used for delivering medication to the lungs, especially for the treatment of respiratory conditions like Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Asthma. They differ in their features and modes of action: 

  • Activation: MDIs necessitate synchronization between squeezing the canister and inhaling the drug. To ensure optimal medicine delivery, users must time their inhalation with the inhaler’s activation. Whereas, DPIs do not require coordination between inhalation and activation. The powder is simply breathed in by users at their leisure.
  • Easy to use: It may be difficult for some users to effectively coordinate the inhalation and activation, particularly for young people and those who have specific physical or cognitive disabilities. Whereas, DPIs are often considered easier to use for some people, including those who have trouble controlling their breathing with MDIs. 
  • Portability: MDIs are typically compact and small, making them easy to carry in a purse or pocket. Whereas, DPIs are also rather portable and small, even though they could be a little bigger than MDIS.
  • Maintenance: The temperature and humidity can have an impact on MDIs and they need to be cleaned frequently. Whereas, DPIs may need less maintenance than MDIs as they don’t use propellants. However, it’s still crucial to handle and store things properly.

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International Yoga Day is celebrated on 21st June every year. This day is the longest day of the year and yoga helps people live longer lives. As the sun rises on 21st June 2024, individuals from all around the world will gather to celebrate International Yoga Day. International Yoga Day celebrates the spiritual and physical prowess that yoga has brought to the world stage. Although millions of people participate and practice it daily, it is a significant source of exercise and good activities. 

When is International Yoga Day 2024?

International Yoga Day 2024 :- Stretch your body and calm your mind like never before on International Yoga Day on June 21. This special day is devoted to the holistic practice of yoga, which encourages physical, mental and spiritual well-being. It’s a time when individuals from various backgrounds assemble and take part in yoga classes, workshops and events all around the world, highlighting the attraction of this age-old practice to people of all ages and backgrounds. So, mark your calendars for June 21st 2024, and join the global celebrations of International Yoga Day to experience the many advantages of yoga for a healthier, more well-balanced life. 

History of International Yoga Day 

People all across the world are getting ready to start exercising on their yoga mats for International Yoga Day, but many may not be aware that yoga has a long history. Yoga is considered as an ancient practice that began in India more than 5,000 years ago. Yoga flourished as a way to interconnect the body, mind and soul to step closer into enlightenment. As the method gained popularity in the West, it was promoted as a kind of exercise and relaxation that might also help with chronic pain and physical injuries. 

The idea of International Yoga Day was first initiated by Prime Minister Mr. Narendra Modi on September 27, 2014, during his speech at the UN General Assembly, where India’s ambassador, Asoke Kumar Mukerji, proposed a resolution designating June 21 as International Yoga Day. 

The date of June 21 was selected as it is the Summer Solstice, the day of the year with the maximum sunshine. Overall, it received support from 177 nations, the most number of sponsors to a UN resolution declaring June 21 as International Yoga Day. The first International Yoga Day was celebrated on June 21, 2015, in New Delhi by nearly 36,000 participants, including Prime Minister Modi and numerous other prominent political figures from around the world. Since then, the day has been commemorated in countries all over the world. 

Themes of Internationa Yoga Day 

  • International Yoga Day 2021 Theme 

In 2021, the theme for Yoga Day was “Yoga for well-being”. The theme emphasized the value of yoga for a person’s health. Since 2021 was also the year when the world was fighting the pandemic, individuals and communities all around the world realized the significance of the theme.

  • International Yoga Day 2022 Theme 

International Yoga Day has a different theme each year. Celebrations and discussions are held locally, nationally, and internationally depending on the theme. Ever since 21st June was announced as World Yoga Day, various schools, organizations and corporations have hosted diverse events to spread awareness about yoga as an exercise. The theme for Yoga Day in 2022 was “Yoga for Humanity.”

  • International Yoga Day 2023 Theme 

International Yoga Day 2023 was celebrated on the theme “Yoga for Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam”, which also represents ‘one earth, one family, one future’. This theme emphasizes how regular yoga practice contributes to the well-being of every person, regardless of discrimination.  

Event Details for International Day of Yoga 2024 

Date: June 21, 2024

Venue: Multiple locations and online

Significance of International Yoga Day 

Yoga is an old practice that combines meditation, physical postures, breathing exercises and ethical principles to promote the overall well-being of individuals. International yoga day in 2024 will inspire people to practice yoga regularly and experience its beneficial effects on their physical and mental health. Before delving into the 2024 event, it’s important to understand why International Yoga Day is celebrated worldwide. The day, which was instituted by the United Nations in 2014, aims to promote yoga as a comprehensive strategy for wellbeing. International Yoga Day 2024 aims to highlight the contribution that yoga may make to accomplishing the 17 sustainable development goals set forth by the United Nations earlier this year. 

International Yoga Day Timeline 

  • 200 BCE (beginnings): It has been discovered that these are the earliest reports of Yoga. 
  • September 27, 2014 (India proposes): Narendra Modi and the Indian delegation propose to create International Yoga Day. 
  • June 21, 2015 (first ever): In India, the first-ever Yoga Day is celebrated by almost 36,000 people.
  • June 21, 2018 (yoga for all): Over 100,000 people attend the biggest yoga class, which is held in India.

Why do we celebrate Yoga only on 21st June?

International Yoga Day is celebrated annually on June 21st every year to spread awareness about the benefits of meditation and yoga worldwide. This specific date was chosen because it marks the summer solstice in the Northern Hemisphere, when the day is the longest and the energies of nature are thought to be perfectly aligned. The day is celebrated on 21st June every year, is a global event that promotes the mental, physical and spiritual benefits of practicing Yoga.


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Nebulizers and inhalers, which were introduced to the world in the 1930s and 1950s, respectively, were precisely the inventions that patients with lung conditions like asthma had long wished for. This meant that patients could now easily inhale the medication that was required to manage and treat their illnesses. Nebulizers were the first to be invented and were certainly appreciated, but you couldn’t carry one about with you to work or school. As a result, when inhalers were introduced, they swiftly replaced other options as the preferred form of respiratory treatment. So, before looking at the same for nebulizers, let’s look into the benefits and drawbacks of the preferred inhaler. 

The Benefits of Inhalers: –

  • Allow for the quick delivery of medications to the airways, which is appropriate for COPD and asthma medications. 
  • Lightweight, small and easily portable in a pocket, purse or suitcase.
  • Quite simple to use when given the right instructions.

The Disadvantage of Inhalers: –

  • Small, portable, and quite simple to misplace, occasionally necessitating a search to recover one, often in cough cushions and beneath beds. 
  • Difficult for some individuals to coordinate, particularly mentally challenged, young children and the elderly
  • They are less suitable during asthma and COPD flare-ups or the final stages of COPD as they need a specific inspiratory flow to activate the medication. 
  • It’s simple to use an inhaler fast (puff-puff) and secretly. 

The Advantage of Nebulizers:-

  • Allowing for quick medication delivery to the airways is ideal for people with asthma and COPD.
  • Quite easy to coordinate and relatively easy to use (just breathe normally)
  • The medication is simple to inhale, independent of airflow restrictions brought on by flare-ups and advanced COPD. 
  • Nebulizers and air compressors are useful backups if you can’t find your inhaler as they are less portable and more likely to be found right where you left them. 

The Disadvantage of Nebulizers: –

  • The majority of air compressors need an electric source
  • The majority of affordable nebulizers are not easily portable
  • Nebulizer treatments frequently take 10 to 20 minutes, which presents a challenge in the fast-paced environment of today. 

Which Asthma Control Medication is Most Effective for Your Needs? 

The market is flooded with so many asthma controller medications that there are too many choices. A common query I get is: Which one is better for me? To answer this, Dr. Sheetu Singh suggests some basic components of Asthma.

  • Chronic  – Every asthmatic has some level of airway inflammation in their air passages.
  • Acute – When this chronic inflammation goes uncontrolled, exposure to asthma triggers may exacerbate it, leading to increased mucus production and airway spasms, both of which make breathing difficult. 

Based on this knowledge, Dr. Sheetu Singh knows that the best way to treat Asthma is:-

  • Control: The reduction of underlying inflammation
  • Prevention: Prevent asthma symptoms
  • Treat flare-ups: As soon as an acute symptom appears, treat it. 

When you reach this stage of asthma therapy, you decide to take asthma medications for the rest of your life. The average time it takes for a medication to start working is two to three weeks. You must take the medication every single day of your life for it to be effective, even when you feel well. You must therefore continue taking your controller medications even if you are feeling well today.  

The best part about today’s available asthma controller medications is that they are all just required to be taken once or twice a day. All you have to do is take your inhaler before you brush your teeth in the morning and also in the evening. The use of a nebulizer instead of an inhaler can be beneficial for some asthmatics. These would include:

  • Infants and young kids who are unable to use an inhaler 
  • adults with mental disabilities and the elderly who are unable to control an inhaler
  • Those with severe asthma who struggle to produce enough flow to activate inhalers

The best asthma medication for you relies on how severe your asthma is. Typically, Dr. Sheetu Singh will begin treatment with a straightforward inhaled steroid; if this works, no more therapy is required. Common inhaled steroids are: 

  • Qvar (beclomethasone): Two puffs from an inhaler, twice daily
  • Flovent (fluticasone): 1-2 puffs or inhalers twice a day
  • Pulmicort (budesonide): Nebulizer used to administer the solution twice daily 

Those medications are excellent if they work! You may now proceed. A long-acting beta-adrenergic medication along with an inhaled steroid may be advised by your doctor if you use one of them for a month or two and your asthma is still deemed to be poorly controlled. 

  • Advair discus (fluticasone, salmeterol): 1 inhaler twice daily.
  • Symbicort Turbohalert or inhaler (budesonide, formoterol): 2 puffs twice daily.
  • Dulera (mometasone, formoterol): 2 puffs twice daily.
  • Breo Ellipta (fluticasone, vilanterol): 1 puff once daily.
  • brovana/Pulmicort (formoterol): twice daily solution taken in a nebulizer .

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Infectious Diseases in Adults :- Infectious illnesses account for one-third of all fatalities in adults aged 65 and older. The usual warning signs and symptoms, such as fever and leukocytosis, are frequently missing in the elderly, making early detection more challenging. The only presenting issue in an older patient with an illness can be a change in mental status or a reduction in function. Pneumonia is estimated to be the cause of 90 percent of deaths in people 65 and older. The elderly are primarily affected by influenza-related mortality. The most frequent cause of bacteremia in older persons is urinary tract infections. Asymptomatic bacteriuria occurs frequently in the elderly; however, antibiotic therapy does not seem to be effective. 

The elderly are particularly affected by the recent surge of antibiotic-resistant bacteria as they are more likely to contract infections in hospitals and other institutional settings. It is difficult to treat colonization and active infection; careful commitment to hygiene precautions is required to stop the spread of resistant microorganisms. Despite improvements in antibiotic treatment, infectious illnesses continue to be a leading cause of death in older persons. Physicians face distinct challenges while treating infections in elderly persons due to the diagnostic and therapeutic complexities.

Fever in Adults 

Fever is a raised body temperature that occurs when the body’s thermostat—located in the brain’s hypothalamus—resets at a higher temperature, typically in response to an illness. Hyperthermia is the medical term for elevated body temperature that isn’t brought on by a reset of the thermostat. Several body parts allow for the measurement of body temperature. The most common sites are the rectum and the mouth. Other sites include the forehead, ear and ideally Armpit. A digital thermometer is typically used to measure temperature. 

Oral temperatures are considered elevated when

  • In the morning, they are greater than 99° F (37° C).
  • At any moment after the early morning, they are greater than 100.4° F (38° C).
  • They are higher than the known average daily temperature of an individual.

Causes of Fever in Adults 

Substances that cause fever are known as Pyrogens. Pyrogens can originate from both inside and outside the body. Examples of pyrogens created outside the body include microorganisms and the compounds they produce such as toxins. Pyrogens formed inside the body are usually produced by Macrophages and Monocytes. Fever may also result from inflammation, a reaction to an allergic reaction, a drug, Autoimmune disorders and undetected cancer, especially Lymphoma, Leukemia or kidney cancer. Fever is a symptom of many diseases. They can be generally divided into:

  • Infectious (most common)
  • Neoplastic (cancer)
  • Inflammatory

Most Common Causes 

Fever can be caused by almost all infectious diseases. However, the majority of infectious causes are:

  • Lower and upper respiratory tract infections
  • Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
  • Gastrointestinal infections
  • Skin infections

Risk factors

People who have certain conditions (risk factors) are more likely to get a fever. These elements consist of the following:

  • The person’s health status
  • Certain occupations
  • The person’s age
  • Use of certain drugs and medical procedures
  • exposure to diseases, such as those brought on by travel or by coming into contact with sick people, animals or insects.

Evaluation of Fever in Adults 

A doctor can identify an infection based on a patient’s medical history, physical examination and occasionally a few quick tests like a chest x-ray and urine tests. Dr Sheetu Singh initially evaluated people with an acute fever, they focused on two general issues:

  • Finding other symptoms such as cough or headache; The wide range of potential causes is reduced by these symptoms.
  • Determining whether the individual is chronically or seriously ill; many potential acute viral infections resolve on their own and are challenging for clinicians to specifically diagnose, that is identify the specific virus that is causing the infection. It can be less expensive, wasteful, and frequently useless to restrict testing to those who are gravely or chronically unwell. 

Warning signs 

Some symptoms and traits in patients with an acute fever are concerning. They include:

  • Stiff neck, headache or both
  • Low blood pressure 
  • A modification of mental state such as confusion
  • Petechiae, which are small, flat, purple-red spots on the skin that signify internal bleeding
  • Rapid breathing or rapid heart rate
  • Shortness of breath
  • a temperature that is greater than 104° F 40° C or less than  95° F 35° C
  • Recent travel to a region where an endemic (regular) infectious disease, like malaria, is present
  • Recent usage of immunosuppressants, medications that weaken the immune system 

Essentials for Older People: Fever 

Fever can be challenging in older people because the body may not respond the way it would in younger age. For instance, infection is less likely to result in fever in elderly, fragile individuals. Even when the temperature is raised due to an infection, it may be lower than the standard for a fever and the level of the fever may not be consistent with how serious the condition is. Similarly, other symptoms, such as pain may be less noticeable. A change in mental function or a decline in everyday functioning is frequently the only other early indicator of pneumonia or a urinary tract infection. 

However, older people with a fever are more likely to have a serious bacterial infection than younger adults with a fever. A respiratory or urinary tract infection is frequently the cause, much like in younger adults. Soft-tissue and skin infections are also common causes in older people. Serious respiratory viral infections such as influenza, COVID-19 and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are more common in older adults.


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According to the World Health Organization, infection prevention and control (IPC) is a scientific strategy and workable solution created to stop the harm that parasites can do to patients and healthcare professionals. It is an element of epidemiology that is important for understanding social sciences, global health and infectious illnesses. To improve patient safety and the health system overall, effective IPC is a public health concern. According to the WHO’s core components of IPC, access to healthcare services that are designed and managed to reduce the risks of preventable HAI for patients and healthcare workers is a fundamental human right. Dr. Sheetu Singh plays a pivotal role in infectious disease prevention and control through her multifaceted contributions. She is an expert in many facets of this crucial matter, beginning with the quick and effective diagnosis and treatment of infectious disorders.

The Spread of Infectious Disease

An infection is defined as the successful transmission of pathogenic microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, parasites or fungi that are spread. 

  • Directly:-
    • From person to person
    • Through respiratory droplets such as sneezing or coughing
    • Through fluids from the body
    • exposure to an infectious pathogen directly from the environment
    • During childbirth from mother to fetus
  • Indirectly:- 
    • Biological- intermediate host or vector such as Zika virus
    • Mechanical- vehicle or vector such as Plague transmission of Yersinia Pestis by Fleas
    • Airborne such as Tuberculosis

Epidemiological Triad 

Human infections occur when an infectious bacterium enters the body, multiplies and triggers an immune response that may lead to an infectious disease. The Epidemiological Triad is a set of three factors that are necessary for infectious disease transmission. 

  • The agent– The microorganisms that cause the infection and can be in the form of viruses, bacteria, parasites or fungi
  • The Host– The target of the disease
  • The Environment– The conditions and surroundings (which are external to the disease)

Infection Spread in Healthcare 

Due to the presence and proportion of susceptible people, healthcare facilities, including hospitals and primary care clinics, are a place where disease transmission is more likely to occur. During treatment, one in ten individuals contracts an infection though efficient infection control lowers healthcare-associated infections by at least 30%. The three elements necessary for infection propagation in a medical context are as follows: –

  • Source – places where infectious agents survive like hospital equipment, sinks, countertops and medical devices.
    • Environment- Sinks, hospital equipment, patient care areas, medical devices and countertops
    • People- healthcare workers, patients or visitors 
  • Susceptible person – Someone who has a weakened immune system, is not immunized against a certain infectious disease, or is not immune to it. 
    • Additionally, underlying medical disorders, drugs and essential treatments and procedures like surgery that raise the risk of infection can make people more susceptible.
  • Transmission – How bacteria are transferred to the affected person
    • Touch including via medical equipment or a susceptible person such as VRE or MRSA
    • Splashes or sprays for example, Pertussis
    • Inhalation of Aerosolized particles like Measles or TB.
    • Bleeding pathogens are spread through sharp injuries such as HBV, HIV and HCV. 

Controlling Infectious Diseases Within Communities 

Infection control and prevention is a global concern and numerous protocols and recommendations can be followed to reduce the spread of infection among individuals, within a group and globally. Identifying at-risk groups such as kids, the elderly and those with chronic illnesses, can also help direct initiatives to safeguard these groups. The first step in infection control may be to alter community practices, such as: –

  • Regular hand washing
  • Appropriate use of body and face masks prevents the spread of and protects from respiratory infections
  • Using insect repellents
  • Participating in immunization programs and ensuring current routine vaccines
  • Taking prescribed medications such as Antibiotics as directed by health professionals
  • Avoiding contact with outsiders-social distancing
  • Using protection when intimate, especially with new partners. 

Other steps that can be taken to stop the spread inside communities include environmental controls like:-

  • Surveillance of diseases
  • Modifying environments
  • Food safety
  • Air quality

Medical Interventions 

There are biochemical interventions that can be used in addition to straightforward measures to prevent and control infections to hasten the healing process and in certain situations, totally prevent viral infections. The development of Antivirals, Antibiotics and Vaccinations has been shown to speed up recovery, infectious illness spread is slowed down and in some cases eliminated from communities. 

Antibiotics 

Antibiotics are administered for bacterial illnesses to boost the body’s natural defense mechanism in eradicating pathogenic microorganisms. They are intended to either eradicate germs or prevent their reproduction. However, improper use of antibiotics, excessive prescription and bacterial mutation have resulted in the creation of resistant bacteria. 

Vaccinations 

The purpose of vaccinations is to increase immunity to a certain disease. Small amounts of the disease-causing virus or bacteria are introduced into the host during vaccinations to help the recipient develop natural immunity. The introduction of regular vaccines has slowed down and in some cases eradicated certain diseases such as Measles, Polio, Mumps, whooping cough and Rubeola. There are other vaccines available to prevent chickenpox, but they are only given to people who are at high risk of passing the illness to people who have compromised immune systems. 

Antivirals 

Antibiotics provide no defense against infectious diseases that are caused by viral agents such as HIV, Influenza, Hepatitis and Herpes. Antiviral medications are most effective in these circumstances for preventing the infection from spreading and boosting immunity. 

Standard Precautions for All Patient Care: –
  • Perform hand hygiene
  • To prevent infection, put on personal protective equipment PPE
  • Follow cough etiquette principles/respiratory hygiene
  • Ensure appropriate isolation precautions and patient placement
  • Properly clean, handle and disinfect patient care equipment and medical instruments.
  • improving the flow of information among medical professionals, particularly when referring patients who may be contagious.

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Although “infectious” and “contagious” are frequently used interchangeably to describe illnesses their meanings are quite different. Infectious and communicable diseases are two different types of illnesses with different symptoms and transmission modes. Communicable diseases are those that can be transmitted from one person to another through various methods such as droplets, direct contact or contaminated surfaces. These illnesses frequently spread quickly within communities and if not properly controlled, can cause outbreaks or epidemics. 

On the other hand, infectious diseases encompass a broader range of illnesses caused by microorganisms like viruses, fungi, bacteria or parasites. Not all infectious diseases are contagious, even though many of them are, as some can be spread by mosquitoes or the environment.  As a result, all communicable diseases are infectious, not all infectious diseases are necessarily communicable. Dr. Sheetu Singh, a specialist in infectious diseases, possesses the knowledge and experience needed to treat, diagnose and provide invaluable advice on various infectious ailments. 

Infectious Disease

An infectious disease is merely an infection. That occurs when a bacterium enters your body and settles in. This entails an exponential rate of cell division and growth for bacteria and fungi. On the other hand, viruses face the additional challenge of invading human cells and seizing control of their functioning centers. 

Infectious & Not Communicable

Although all communicable diseases are infectious, not all infections are communicable. For example, Tetanus can cause an infection, but a person with Tetanus infection can’t spread it to another person. The bacteria live in dust and dirt and get inside your body through abrasions like scrapes, cuts or punctures. Although the bacterium can cause extremely dangerous infections and illnesses in people, it will almost certainly never cause a worldwide pandemic. 

Invisible Infections Communicable Disease

A communicable disease is a contagious one. The effect is external. If someone contracts the disease, they may fall ill and infect the next person with the pathogen, which could be a virus, cold or other disease-causing agent. This can lead to isolated outbreaks and small or full-scale pandemics. The flu is one example of this, which occurs annually in the United States from around October to May. The influenza virus spreads widely as it is conveyed from person to person and through contaminated objects. One to two additional people who aren’t immune will probably catch the virus for every person who already has it. 

Methods of Transmission

Nature is inventive when it comes to how viruses might spread through a population. These are just a few of the most common ways that bacteria spread. 

  • Person-to-person 

Pathogens that go from one person to another can be transmitted several ways through respiratory droplets like sneezing or coughing, contact with blood, sexual activity or from mother to child during birth, pregnancy or breastfeeding. Although the germ can spread more easily when you are actively ill and sneezing or coughing frequently, you don’t need to have symptoms to be contagious. For instance, Measles can be spread up to four days before the distinctive rash appears and the virus can remain in the air for up to two hours after you leave the area. 

  • Vectors 

Certain microbes are transmitted by a more convoluted person-vector path rather than directly from person to person. For instance, mosquitoes carry the parasite that causes malaria after biting a person who has the disease and then transmitting it to the next person they bite. The mere presence of mosquitoes is insufficient for disease transmission; they primarily act as conduits. Without the presence of individuals infected with malaria, mosquitoes cannot transmit the disease. 

  • Fomites 

Hand-washing holds great significance in disease prevention due to the abundance of everyday objects we come into contact with, teeming with harmful germs capable of causing illness. During flu and cold season, It’s usual for viruses to spread to the next person by accidentally wiping a runny nose and then touching a doorknob. When you approach them from behind to open the same door, the viruses adhere to your skin and wait for an opening to enter your body, frequently when you are rubbing your eyes or touching your nose.

  • Fecal-Oral and Foodborne 

The term fecal-oral refers to the transmission of germs through an oral surface that has been polluted with feces. For instance, a person who neglected to wash their hands after using the restroom can infect a doorknob. If another person touches the same doorknob and then puts his or her hand in their mouth, they could become infected. 

Another way of contamination is food poisoning, caused by ingestion of toxins usually from spoiled food. The spoiled food may contain parasites, toxins and bacteria. Most often the bacteria that spoil food and can cause illness in humans include Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, Coli, Botulinum, Cholera, Campylobacter and Listeria.


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The Impact of 28 Devastating Infectious Diseases :- Infectious diseases still exist today and have affected human history. Such contagious diseases are on many of our minds as the new coronavirus spreads over mainland China and other parts of the world. Here is a look at some of the worst of these epidemics, including the latest SARS, new coronavirus and Zika virus as well as Ebola and Dengue. 

  1. The new coronavirus :-
    The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is a fresh coronavirus strain that initially surfaced in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. In China, the virus has caused more than 40,000 illnesses and 900 deaths as of February 10, 2020. The huge virus family known as coronaviruses is responsible for many respiratory diseases. These viruses are those that cause MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome) and SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome).
  2. Smallpox  :-
    Smallpox causes skin lesions, which emerged about 3000 years ago in India or Egypt before sweeping across the globe. According to the World Health Organization, the Variola virus, which causes smallpox, left up to a third of those it infected dead, while also leaving other victims with scars and blindness.  In 1980, the WHO declared the disease officially eradicated after a decade-long vaccination campaign. Facilities in the US and Russia are holding the virus’s final samples.
  3. Plague :-
    There are three different types of the disease, but the most well-known is bubonic plague, which is distinguished by buboes, or painful enlarged lymph nodes. Plague can have a 50% to 60% fatality rate in people who are not treated, according to the WHO, even though the disease is treatable because of antibiotics introduced in the 1940s.
  4. Malaria :-
    Malaria has devastated parts of Africa, although it is curable and preventable, where the illness causes 20% of all childhood deaths, citing the World Health Organization. A parasite carried by blood-sucking mosquitoes causes the disease, which is initially characterized by chills, fever and flu-like symptoms before progressing to more serious complications.
  5. Influenza :-
    According to the World Health Organization, Flu, a seasonal respiratory infection is responsible for about 3 million to 5 million cases of severe illness and about 2,50,000 to 5,00,000 deaths per year across the globe. Some influenza viruses can cross species boundaries, as the recent swine flu and bird flu concerns showed.
  6. Tuberculosis :-
    Potentially fatal TB or Tuberculosis is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis which usually causes the signature bloody coughs and attacks the lungs. Up to one-third of the world’s population currently harbors the bacterium without exhibiting symptoms, and it does not always make those it infects sick. Additionally, 5% to 10% of those with TB infection (but not HIV) will get sick or spread an infection at some point in their lifespan.
  7. HIV/AIDS :-
    HIV is a relatively new disease, in contrast to many of the worst offenders on this list, which have a lengthy history with humans. It was discovered in 1981 that specific immune system cells are decimated by HIV. HIV makes its victims more vulnerable to a wide range of opportunistic illnesses by weakening a portion of the immune system.
  8. Cholera :-
    Acute diarrhea from cholera can be dangerous if not treated in a matter of hours. People contract the disease by consuming foods or beverages that carry the Vibrio cholerae bacterium. Through infected feces, the bacteria frequently contaminate food and water. Since it can take 12 hours to 5 days to show symptoms, People’s excrement can unintentionally transmit the disease.
  9. Rabies :-
    The initial symptoms of rabies can be hard to detect in humans, as they mimic the flu including fever, discomfort and general weakness. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), when the disease progresses, patients may experience abnormal behavior, delirium, insomnia and hallucinations.
  10. Pneumonia :-
    Pneumonia may not be as terrifying as illnesses like rabies or smallpox, but it can still be fatal, especially for anyone under the age of 5 or over 65. Inflammation of the air sacs in one or both lungs is a symptom of the illness of pneumonia. The air sacs may swell with fluid or pus (purulent material), which can cause breathing difficulties, a fever, chills, and a cough that produces pus or phlegm. The disease can be caused by a virus, bacteria or a combination of both. According to Dr. Sheetu Singh, a person can get pneumonia from a parasite, fungal infection or reactions to certain medicines.
  11. Infectious Diarrhea :-
    The virus causes dehydration brought upon by severe vomiting and watery diarrhea. According to WHO, four Rotavirus vaccines are considered highly effective at preventing the disease. A potentially deadly diarrheal illness, rotavirus is the most frequent cause of viral gastroenteritis (inflammation of the stomach and intestines).
  12. Ebola :-
    A healthy individual can get the Ebola virus by coming into contact with an infected person’s blood or secretions or by handling objects (such as clothing or bedding) that have been exposed to these fluids. The virus is passed from one person to another by bodily fluids. The virus spreads very rapidly, overcoming the body’s immune response and causing muscle pain, fever, weakness, headaches, diarrhea, abdominal pain and vomiting.
  13. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease :-
    Humans can get VCJD when they eat beef from cows with Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), a disease similar to VCJD that occurs in cattle. About 225 cases of vCJD were recorded in the UK and numerous other nations between 1996 and March 2011. According to WHO, individuals infected with VCJD tend to be younger than those infected with CJD.
  14. Marburg :-
    The filamentous forms of the viral particles are the defining hallmark of the Filovirus family of viruses, which includes the Marburg virus. The Marburg virus disease (MVD), is spread from one person to another through bodily fluids much like Ebola. The Marburg virus can infect monkeys just like it does human beings.
  15. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) :-
    The Middle East respiratory syndrome, or MERS, a viral respiratory disease that was initially discovered in 2012 in Saudi Arabia, turns out to be another lethal disease that is spread by bats, in addition to diseases like Ebola and Marburg. According to the WHO, MERs originated in bats, its major reservoir in the Middle East is likely dromedary camels.
  16. Dengue :-
    According to the WHO and the CDC, mosquito-borne viruses of which dengue is one of many kill an estimated 50,000 people worldwide every year. Dengue is a disease that can be caused by one of four related viruses such as DENV 1, DENV 2, DENV 3 and DENV 4. Sometimes the virus causes severe dengue or dengue hemorrhagic fever, a potentially fatal consequence with symptoms including fever, stomach pain, vomiting, blood and problems breathing.
  17. Yellow Fever :-
    Similar to dengue, yellow fever is a flavivirus and is transmitted from one person to another by mosquitoes. Jaundice or a yellowing of the skin and eyes, is a sign of the illness that is observed by a tiny number of those who are affected. According to the WHO, half of the patients who enter the toxic phase of yellow fever die within 7 to 10 days.
  18. Hantaviruses :-
    Hantaviruses are spread to humans by rodents, particularly from rats and mice. People who come into contact with these animal’s bodily secretions directly or who breathe in virus-carrying aerosolized particles from those secretions may contract a hantavirus. Fever, vomiting, and dizziness are among the first signs of this illness, which is similar to HPS in that it can also result in kidney failure and bleeding.
  19. Anthrax :-
    Anthrax is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus Anthracis, It inhabits soil and typically infects domestic and wild animals, including goats, cattle, and sheep. The disease typically infects people when they come into contact with infected animals or animal products.
  20. MRSA “Superbug” :-
    Shortened form of methicillin-resistant The staph bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, also known as MRSA, is capable of inflicting potentially fatal skin and bloodstream infections and is resistant to the majority of antibiotics used to treat these infections.
  21. Pertussis :-
    The respiratory tract infection pertussis, widely known as whooping cough, is brought on by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Pertussis is dangerous for babies, who can experience apnea or pauses in breathing. 87% of people who died from whooping cough between 2000 and 2012 were babies less than 3 months old.
  22. Tetanus :-
    Tetanus, an infection brought on by the bacteria Clostridium tetani, can be prevented by receiving the Tdap vaccine, which protects against pertussis. Tetanus-causing bacteria exist on the intestines of humans and animals as well as in dirt or soil (as well as objects left lying around in the dirt, like rusty nails) which they enter through the skin.
  23. Meningitis :-
    Meningitis is the medical term for inflammation of the membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord, or meninges. Fungi, viruses, and bacteria are just a few of the possible causes of this contagious illness. Some people get meningitis after having brain surgery, suffering a head injury or having certain kinds of cancer.
  24. Syphilis :-
    The sexually transmitted disease syphilis is relatively treatable, but if left untreated it can have devastating side effects. An individual’s genitalia or anus may develop sores in the early stages of the illness. Many people just ignore these sores or mistake them for ingrown hairs or blemishes as they are often small, painless and they heal on their own. The second phase of the disease is more noticeable and usually begins with a rash on one more part of the body.
  25. SARS :-
    The virus responsible for the pandemics in 2002 and 2003 that killed more than 750 people globally is known as SARS. SARS is spread to people by bats much like the Marburg virus, Ebola viruses and MERS. According to the National Institutes of Health, the SARS virus likely originated in horseshoe bats in China.
  26. Leprosy :-
    Leprosy is an infectious, chronic illness brought on by the Mycobacterium leprae bacteria. Leprosy, often known as Hansen’s illness after the Norwegian physician who discovered the causative microbe, has an impact on the eyes, upper respiratory system, peripheral nerves and skin.
  27. Measles :-
    Measles, commonly known as rubeola, is one of the most contagious viral diseases that results in a recognizable red skin rash. There are additional signs of this viral illness that resemble cold symptoms.
  28. Zika :-
    The Zika virus is a flavivirus spread by mosquitoes of the Aedes genus and was first discovered in Africa in 1947. For the majority of adults, Zika virus sickness is not extremely harmful, but it can have serious consequences for pregnancy and babies. Those who do get sick could have conjunctivitis (pink eye), rash, fever and joint discomfort, but these symptoms are often minor and only last a few days.

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Infectious diseases are illnesses brought on by pathogens, which are dangerous substances that enter your body. The most common causes are bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Infectious diseases usually spread through contaminated food or water, from person to person and through bug bites. Some infectious diseases are very serious and some are minor. Infectious diseases are illnesses brought on by pathogens—dangerous organisms—that enter your body from the outside. Pathogens that cause infectious diseases are bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. If you need advice or care for infectious diseases from an expert, contact Dr Sheetu Singh a distinguished infectious diseases specialist renowned for her extensive experience and knowledge in the field. She has experience in identifying and treating a variety of infectious diseases and is committed to giving her patients compassionate care and state-of-the-art treatments. 

What is the Difference Between Infectious Diseases and Noninfectious Diseases?

Viruses and bacteria are two examples of dangerous creatures that enter your body from the outside and cause infectious diseases. Non-infectious diseases are not brought on by external organisms, but rather by genetics, anatomical variations, aging and your environment. Diseases that are not contagious cannot be acquired from other people, by an insect bite, or through food. Measles, flu, HIV, strep throat, COVID-19 and salmonella are all examples of infectious diseases. Diabetes, Cancer and congestive heart failure are all examples of noninfectious diseases. 

What are the Types of Infectious Diseases? 

Infectious diseases can be bacterial, viral, parasitic or fungal infectious. The rare class of infectious diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) affects people. 

  • Viral infectious: Viruses are a piece of information inside of a protective shell (Capsid). Viruses are incapable of self-replication as they are considerably smaller than your cells. They enter your cells and use the equipment there to duplicate themselves.
  • Bacterial infections: Bacteria are single-celled organisms whose genetic code is encoded on a tiny piece of DNA. Bacteria can be found everywhere, including on our skin and inside our bodies. While many bacteria are harmless or even helpful, certain bacteria produce toxins that can make you ill.
  • Fungal infectious: Like bacteria, there are several fungi. They live in and on your body. When your fungi get lush or when harmful fungi get into your body through your nose, mouth or a cut in your skin, you might get sick. 
  • Parasitic infections: When living and reproducing, parasites rely on the bodies of other creatures. Some single-celled creatures (protozoa) and worms (helminths) are considered to be parasites.
  • Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: TSEs are brought on by prions, which are malfunctioning proteins that induce other proteins in your body, typically those in your brain, to malfunction as well. 

What are the Common Infectious Diseases?

Worldwide, infectious diseases are relatively prevalent, but some are more widespread than others. For instance 1 out of every 5 Americans contract the influenza virus each year, while less than 300 persons are found to have prion illnesses. Some of the most common infectious diseases are listed below:-

1. Common infectious diseases caused by viruses

  • Common cold
  • The flu
  • Covid-19
  • Stomach flu (Gastroenteritis)
  • Hepatitis
  • Respiratory syncytial virus

 2. Common infectious diseases caused by bacteria

  • Strep throat
  • Salmonella
  • Whooping cough
  • Tuberculosis
  • Urinary tract infectious (UTI)
  • Clostridioides difficile (C.diff)

3. Common infectious diseases caused by fungi

  • Ringworm
  • Vaginal candidiasis (vaginal yeast infection)
  • Thrush
  • Fungal nail infections

4. Common infectious diseases caused by Parasites

  • Giardiasis
  • Hookworms
  • Toxoplasmosis
  • Pinworms

What Causes Infectious Diseases?

Several external substances that enter your body can cause infectious infections. These include:

  • Viruses
  • Bacteria
  • Fungi
  • Parasites
  • Prions 

How are Infectious Diseases Treated?

The infection’s cause will determine how it is treated. Sometimes, rather than prescribing medication, your doctor will advise you to keep an eye on your symptoms. 

  • Bacterial infections can be treated with Antibiotics. The appropriate antibiotic depends on the type of bacteria that caused the infection. 
  • Most viral infections can be treated with over-the-counter medications to manage your symptoms until you feel better. If you have the flu, your healthcare provider may prescribe oseltamivir phosphate in some cases. Antiretroviral therapy is a particular medication used to treat certain viral illnesses like HIV. 
  • Fungal infections can be treated with antifungal medications. You can apply them topically to the fungus where it is on your skin with clotrimazole or take them orally with fluconazole.
  • Antiparasitic medications such as metronidazole can be used to treat parasites.
  • There are no treatments for prion diseases. 

Can Infectious Diseases be Prevented?

There are several easy ways to lower your chance of contracting infectious diseases and some infections can even be completely avoided. There is usually no one method that is 100% successful at preventing sickness, even while each of these helps to lower your risk of contracting and spreading infectious diseases. 

1. Vaccines 

Vaccines lower your risk of contracting an infectious disease by training your immune system to identify and combat infections from dangerous pathogens. While people do still get sick with a disease after getting vaccinated for it, The majority of the time, your symptoms are not as bad as they would have been without the vaccination. 

A shot or series of injections is typically administered (or less frequently a nasal spray) vaccines are available for many common infectious diseases, including:

  • Chickenpox
  • Covid-19
  • Hepatitis A
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV)
  • Influenza
  • Malaria
  • Polio 
  • Rabies
  • Tuberculosis

2. Safe food handling 

Healthy food-handling practices aid in the prevention of some infectious diseases. 

  • Wash your hands thoroughly with water and soap before and after during food preparation
  • Peeling or thoroughly washing all fruits and veggies
  • Before thawing, keep meats frozen at 0°F (-180°C)
  • Before consuming, meats should be cooked to a safe temperature
  • Wash food preparation utensils and surfaces with water and soap after use
  • Don’t eat undercooked or uncooked seafood
  • Dont drink unpasteurized milk
  • Dont eat untreated water

Other strategies for preventing infectious illness

You can lessen your chance of contracting or transmitting an infectious disease with a few regular behaviors in addition to vaccinations and appropriate food handling practices. 

  • Wash your hands with water and soap. Thorough hand-washing is particularly important before using the bathroom, preparing a meal or eating, after working with dirt or after coming into contact with feces, whether animal or human. 
  • Cover your mouth and nose when you cough or sneeze.
  • Keep your house and office clean by disinfecting commonly touched surfaces.
  • Use protection during any kind of intimacy.
  • Avoid drinking from or swimming in potentially contaminated water.
  • To diminish the risk of mosquito bites or ticks, Use tick and mosquito repellant, cover as much exposed skin as you can with clothing and check yourself for ticks after being in wooded or long grassy areas. 

Booking an appointment with Dr. Sheetu Singh for an infectious disease consultation is a cautious step toward addressing your health concerns. She is a well-known expert in viral illnesses and has a plethora of knowledge and skills in identifying and managing a variety of infectious diseases. To set up an appointment with Dr. Singh, all you need to do is get in touch with her clinic, and the accommodating staff will guide you in finding a time that suits your schedule.


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A 34-year-old female was presented with progressive dyspnea for one month. This was accompanied by short breath which lasted for the same period of a month. She has a history of unknown poisoning, for which she was put on a ventilator, following which she had a tracheostomy in April 2023. Shortness of breath is one of the major symptoms of this condition, as the disease becomes progressively chronic, it lasts longer than one month.

Post-intubation tracheal stenosis is the narrowing of the trachea for which tracheostomy is considered when all scopes are ruled out, also considering every complication which can arise post-surgery. 

Symptoms for this condition included the following: –

  1. a) shortness of breath that worsens gradually
  2. b) stridor i.e., respiratory sounds which resembled wheezing.

This 34-year-old female was taken for dilation of their air tubes using techniques such as bronchoscopy because of the following reasons:

  1. a) CT scan of the neck and chest revealed the complexity of tracheal stricture. This reduced or narrowed the passage of air such as in the trachea.
  2. b) Major reason for considering such procedures was the presence of 2 strictures one over the other, revealed in flexible bronchoscopy. Such conditions call for procedures like these.

Diagnosis of tracheal stenosis: –

The team of doctors and experts carried out a special screening of the lady to find out the medical history of the patient as she informed, them she had a history of unknown poisoning. 

 The tests included the following diagnostic measures: 

 a) LFT

 b) CT scan

 c) Chest X-ray 


Plan of surgery: –

Dr. Sheetu and the team wanted to perform CTVS surgery which is supposedly an ideal treatment for such conditions, but the patient refused for it in cold. Cardiothoracic and Vascular surgeries are surgeries of the heart, lungs, chest, oesophagus, and major vessels of our body which are affected by certain conditions that lead to abnormal functioning causing difficulties.

Due to lack of consent, another was brought forth as a replacement for surgery which is an ideal replacement for invasive techniques.

The plan included the widening of the tracheal tube using stents that dilated the airway causing troubled breathing.

The team of experts that included pulmonologists, scanning experts, and anaesthesiologists were together performing the entire process to aid relief to the lady.

Dr. Sheetu who is a well-known pulmonologist and chest expert with expertise in procedures such as bronchoscopy, helped her patient to get rid of troubled breathing patterns. She is a renowned health expert in her field with hands-on experience in a lot of surgeries relieving patients with histories of respiratory ailments. With a proper and precise diagnosis, followed by a well-structured treatment plan, her patients are handled well with required and effective treatment plans.

What was done? 

For this condition of tracheal stenosis, i.e., narrowed tracheal tube affecting the normal flow of air, we went with a rigid bronchoscope to obtain a clear view of airways and lungs.

The procedure was performed in the presence of anaesthesiologists to relieve the patient from any sort of pain during the process, but safe enough to avoid complications.

This was followed by the removal of unwanted tissues using electrocauterization, which dilated the tracheal stricture. This was followed by the use of CRE balloons for dilating the airway endoscopically. The entire process is well-monitored through the tubes producing a clear view of the air passages.

The dilation procedure is then followed by a self-expansive metallic stent called an SEM stent. The placement of these stents requires control in endoscopic methodology and thus is to be performed by a specialist in the field of such surgeries.

The procedure performed with high precision and efficacy requires monitoring and rehabilitation but does not require them to be admitted to the ICUs.

The female patient was observed for a day and was sent home on the second day of the completion of the procedure. However, regular follow-ups are advised for observing the growth in improvement to such difficulty in breathing patterns.

Conclusion: –

With regards to such non-invasive techniques, it is a blessing to save lives and give extra breaths to the patients owing to their medical ailments that require our efforts for the betterment of their lives. 

Dr. Sheetu and the team of health experts brought her life back to normal by bringing the abnormal breathing conditions causing troubled respiratory patterns, back to normal. It is beyond our imaginations sometimes the ways we can find certain problems that appear a dead end. 


Dr. Sheetu Singh, a nationally renowned pulmonologist, Director ILD & Pulmonary Rehab Clinic, is an expert in chest-related conditions. She got her training from SMS Medical College, Jaipur followed by a visit to Cleveland Clinic, USA.

Contact Info

Address: Mahavir Jaipuriya Rajasthan Hospital Milap Nagar, JLN Marg, Jaipur

Mobile: (+91)-8696666380

Email-Id: sheetusingh@yahoo.co.in

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