When you have sleep apnea, you stop breathing while you’re asleep. Your brain tries to protect you by waking you awake enough to breathe, but this inhibits restful, good sleep. This issue can develop into major consequences over time. However, this illness is frequently quite controllable, especially when prescribed therapies are strictly followed. 

What is Sleep Apnea?

When you have sleep apnea, your breathing stops while you are asleep. You stop breathing while you’re sleeping, which causes sleep apnea. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or central apnea (CASA) are the two conditions that induce these episodes of breathing interruptions during sleep. The consequent lack of oxygen triggers a survival reaction that briefly awakens you so you may start breathing again. That prevents you from getting enough rest to fall asleep and may have other consequences, such as stressing out your heart, which may have fatal results. 

What Causes Sleep Apnea?

The majority of the time, sleep apnea has particular causes, and there is evidence that it may run in families. Overall, there are three basic types of sleep apnea, each of which occurs for a variety of reasons. The types are:

    • Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): This is the more common form. When the muscles in your neck and head relax while you’re sleeping, the tissue in the area presses against your windpipe, resulting in obstructive sleep apnea. That prevents air from passing through it. 
    • Central sleep apnea (CSA): This particular type of sleep apnea is brought on by a cognitive issue. In normal circumstances, your brain controls your breathing constantly, even while you’re asleep. CSA happens when your brain doesn’t send signals to keep breathing-related muscles working. There are numerous causes of CSA, including:
      • Low blood oxygen levels (Hypoxia)
      • Heart failure
      • Nervous system damage, especially in your brainstem
      • Treating obstructive sleep apnea initially with CPAP
      • Nervous system conditions like Amyotrophic lateral Sclerosis
  • Mixed/complex sleep apnea: There is also a complex/mixed type of sleep apnea. This form has a combination of both central events and obstructive events.

What are the Symptoms of Sleep Apnea? 

There are numerous signs of sleep apnea, some of which are easier to identify than others. The symptoms include:

  • Daytime sleepiness
  • Feeling tired or even exhausted when waking up
  • Mood changes
  • Snoring
  • constantly waking up in the middle of the night
  • Disruptions in brain function
  • Unusual breathing patterns
  • Breathing pauses seen by others when sleeping
  • Night sweats and feeling restless at night
  • Insomnia
  • Headaches, especially when waking up

Sleep apnea in children

Children’s sleep apnea can manifest itself in a few distinct ways. Children with sleep apnea exhibit the following symptoms:

  • Loud snoring
  • Bedwetting
  • Hyperactivity, difficulty concentrating or low academic performance
  • Reflux (heartburn) or night sweats
  • Frequent leg or arm movements while asleep
  • sleeping with their neck extended or in unusual positions 

How is Sleep Apnea Diagnosed?

Dr. Sheetu Singh may perform an evaluation based on your symptoms and a history of your sleep habits, which you can offer with the assistance of someone who shares your bed or your household. During sleep testing at a sleep center, your breathing and other bodily systems are frequently monitored overnight as part of an evaluation. Tests to detect sleep apnea include:

  • Nocturnal polysomnography: During this test, you’re curved up to equipment that monitors your lung, heart and brain activity, breathing patterns, leg, arm movements and blood oxygen levels while you sleep. 
  • Home sleep tests: Dr. Sheetu Singh might provide you with simplified tests to be used at home to diagnose sleep apnea. These tests usually measure your blood oxygen, heart rate, breathing patterns and airflow. If central sleep apnea is suspected, she is more likely to recommend Polysomnography in a sleep testing facility, rather than a home sleep test. 

Treatment of Sleep Apnea 

For milder cases of sleep apnea, your healthcare provider may recommend only lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking or losing weight. You might need to alter your sleeping position. Dr. Sheetu Singh might suggest allergy medication if you suffer from nasal allergies. Numerous alternative therapies are available if these steps don’t help your symptoms or if your apnea is mild to severe. 

Therapies for OSA

  • Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP): If you have moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea, Use of a device that produces air pressure through a mask while you sleep may be beneficial. With CPAP, the air pressure is somewhat greater than that of the surrounding air and is just enough to keep your upper airway passages open, preventing apnea and snoring. 
  • Other airway pressure devices: If using a CPAP machine still gives you trouble, you may be able to utilize an alternative airway pressure device (auto-CPAP) that automatically changes the pressure while you sleep. Additionally, some devices deliver bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP). These provide less pressure when you exhale and more pressure when you inhale. 
  • Oral appliances: Wearing oral appliances made to keep your throat open is an additional choice. Oral appliances may be simpler to use, but CPAP is consistently more effective. Some are made to help you open your throat by moving your jaw forward, which may assist with moderate obstructive sleep apnea and snoring. 

Surgery for OSA 

If other treatments have failed, surgery may be another option for people with OSA. Before considering surgery, at least a three-month trial of other treatment options is recommended. Surgery is a good first option for a tiny percentage of persons with certain jaw structural issues. Surgical options might include:

  • Tissue removal
  • Jaw repositioning
  • Tissue shrinkage
  • Nerve stimulation
  • Implants
  • Creating a new air passageway, known as Tracheostomy.


Treatment for Obstructive Sleep Apnea : Obstructive Sleep Apnea is a common condition that affects 10% to 30% of people. A complete or partial collapse of the upper airway during sleep is a frequent occurrence in people with OSA. This can lead to gasping and snoring, daytime sleepiness, disrupted sleep and morning headaches. A range of treatments have been developed for obstructive sleep apnea including surgical interventions, oral appliances, respirators, implanted nerve stimulators, lifestyle changes and Oropharyngeal exercises. If you have been diagnosed with OSA, then Contact Dr. Sheetu Singh is a reliable resource for individuals seeking expertise and guidance in managing obstructive sleep apnea. 

Positive Airway Pressure Devices 

Positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy is a preferred strategy for treating OSA in both children and adults. PAP machines pressurize air and distribute it to a user’s airway. This aids in maintaining the upper airway open, making it easier for the user to breathe normally and sleep with fewer disruptions. PAP machine users sleep with a mask that covers the nose and mouth or just the nose. The mask is connected by a hose to a tiny machine that is put next to the bed. This device pushes pressured air into the airway through the hose, stabilizing soft tissues that relax as we fall asleep and preventing airway collapse. 

There are several kinds of PAP devices:

  • Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP): CPAP devices are the most well-studied and basic PAP devices. These machines continuously and reliably provide positive air pressure during use. Typically, a medical expert must stay overnight to monitor the device to determine the correct level of pressure.
  • Auto-adjusting positive airway pressure (APAP): Air pressure is automatically adjusted by APAP equipment based on snoring vibrations and breathing patterns. APAP may be appropriate for particular individuals with variable pressure needs. 
  • Bilevel positive airway pressure (BIPAP): When someone uses a BIPAP device, the air pressure is higher when they breathe in and lower when they breathe out. Patients with OSA who don’t respond well to CPAP therapy frequently receive treatment with BiPAP.
  • Adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV): This particular BiPAP device automatically modifies the inhaling pressure to meet the demands of the user. Although ASV devices are frequently used to treat people with both OSA and central sleep apnea (CSA), they are not recommended for those who have specific heart-related medical issues. 

Lifestyle Changes 

If you have obstructive sleep apnea, Dr. Sheetu Singh may identify risk factors that you can address through lifestyle changes and behavior. These adjustments are frequently suggested in addition to PAP therapy. While changing your habits or way of life typically won’t eliminate OSA symptoms, it can produce noticeable benefits. 

  • Reduce weight: According to studies, losing weight makes OSA symptoms better for persons who are overweight or obese. As many factors influence weight including genetics, sustained weight loss can be challenging. However, some individuals can lose weight through exercise, diet, surgery or medication. 
  • Avoid alcohol: Alcohol use can lengthen and increase the frequency of obstructive breathing events. People with obstructive sleep apnea may be advised to avoid alcohol entirely. Those who do decide to drink alcohol ought to avoid doing so right before bed. 
  • Avoid sedatives: Sedatives can exacerbate OSA symptoms similarly to drinking. Ask your doctor if any of the drugs you’re taking, especially those for anxiety or depression, could make your OSA worse. If appropriate, your doctor may prescribe alternative drugs or medications. 
  • Avoid back sleeping: Back sleeping can aggravate OSA. If this is challenging, your doctor might advise wearing a device that vibrates when you lie on your back and wearing it around your chest or neck. 
  • Get exercise: Regular exercise may improve OSA symptoms, even when it doesn’t lead to weight loss. 

Oral Appliances 

Although lifestyle changes and positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy are the first-line treatments for obstructive sleep apnea, an oral appliance could be recommended if PAP therapy is ineffective or extremely irritating. Oral appliances may also be helpful while traveling as they are very portable and don’t need electricity. There are usually two types of oral appliances used to treat obstructive sleep apnea.

  • Mandibular advancement devices (MAD): MAD can effectively treat moderate and mild OSA and may improve symptoms in some patients with severe OSA. These one- or two-piece devices are made specifically for the mouth and jaw of the patient. They function by advancing the lower jaw, which aids in widening the upper airway.
  • Tongue-retaining devices (TRD): TRD may be used if MAD is not beneficial. To keep the upper airway open, TRDs employ suction to force the tongue forward. The evidence suggests that some users of these devices experience about half as many breathing interruptions during the night, even though they have not been investigated as well. 


Similar to oral appliances, surgery for obstructive sleep apnea is usually a second-line therapy that is recommended when a patient does not respond well to positive airway pressure therapy and lifestyle changes. In general, surgery doesn’t entirely cure OSA, but it can significantly improve symptoms. 

  • Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP): This includes reshaping the soft palate to open the airway. UPPP may include the reduction or removal of the Uvula.
  • Tonsillectomy and Adenoidectomy: These upper throat surgeries require the removal of adenoids, enlarged tonsils or both to increase airflow in the throat.
  • Lower throat surgeries: Also intended to remove tissues obstructing the airway are lower pharyngeal or throat surgeries for OSA. Surgery to reduce the tongue is frequently one of these. 
  • Global upper airway surgeries: These include surgeries to realign the upper and lower jaws to clear obstructions and tighten the soft tissue in the throat to prevent it from collapsing too easily.
  • Nasal surgeries: Nasal surgeries usually involve changing the nasal cavity in some way so that other OSA therapies such as oral appliances and PAP work better. 


Obstructive Sleep Apnea is characterized by episodes of breathing cessation or shallow breathing in sleep. These occurrences are brought on by the full or partial collapse of the upper airway. Most frequently, snoring, oxygen desaturation and brief awakenings from sleep are linked to respiratory events. Sleep apnea is usually worse during lying and rapid eye movement sleep. Diagnosing and managing obstructive sleep apnea is critical for improving the overall health and quality of life of affected individuals. An extensive review of the patient’s medical history and symptoms, such as severe daytime sleepiness, loud snoring, and observed breathing pauses during sleep, is usually the first step in the diagnosis process. 

The monitoring of several physiological factors while a person sleeps, including airflow, oxygen saturation and brain activity is known as Polysomnography and is an important diagnostic technique for OSA. Home sleep apnea tests are also increasingly used for initial screening. The severity of the condition determines the management techniques for OSA once it has been diagnosed. For mild cases, lifestyle changes like losing weight, abstaining from alcohol and sedatives, and positional therapy can be helpful. Obstructive sleep apnea affects 34% of men and 17% of men in the US and has a similar prevalence in other countries. 

Approach Considerations 

Obstructive sleep apnea should be treated and diagnosed promptly. For OSA patients, board-certified sleep specialists assess polysomnography (PSG) data and propose a course of treatment. The severity of the sleep-disordered breathing affects the course of treatment. People with mild to moderate apnea have more options, however those with moderate to severe apnea should use nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) as a treatment. 

Conservative nonsurgical treatment includes general and behavioral strategies like weight loss, abstaining from alcohol for 4-6 hours before bedtime and sleeping on one’s side rather than their stomach or back. Weight loss lowers the risk of OSA as obesity is a primary indicator of the condition. The benefits of weight reduction in patients with sleep-disordered breathing include the following: 

  • Lowered blood pressure
  • Decreased RDI
  • improved lung function and arterial blood gas values
  • Improved snoring and sleep structure
  • Optimal CPAP pressure may need to be reduced.


The most ordinary presenting symptom of obstructive sleep apnea is excessive sleepiness, although this symptom is reported by as few as 15% to 50% of people with OSA in the general population. A 2- to 3-fold greater risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders is linked to OSA. In many patients, obstructive sleep apnea can be diagnosed with home sleep apnea testing, which has a sensitivity of approximately 80%. Successful interventions comprise weight reduction and physical activity, positive airway pressure therapy, employing oral devices that reposition the jaw while sleeping, and surgical alterations to enhance the upper airway through adjustments to either the pharyngeal soft tissues or facial skeleton. 

In some patients with a body mass index under 32, Hypoglossal nerve stimulation is beneficial. There are currently no effective Pharmacological therapies. Positive airway pressure therapy lowers blood pressure, particularly in individuals with resistant hypertension. Randomized clinical trials of OSA treatment however, have not found any appreciable reduction in the rates of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events. 

Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea 

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) must be diagnosed for the affected person to receive successful treatment and see an improvement in their quality of life. Patients frequently go through a detailed medical history evaluation that includes queries regarding symptoms like exhaustion, excessive daytime sleepiness, loud snoring, and choking or gasping while sleeping.  One of the most frequent diagnostic tools for OSA is Polysomnography, an overnight sleep study that tracks many physiological factors, including brain activity, heart rate, airflow,and oxygen levels during sleep. 

Management of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Treatment for OSA can frequently correct its systemic consequences, but it may also result in lasting brain changes that hinder the full recovery of psychomotor functioning deficiencies. Effective management of OSA can be categorized as either a “cure” or “success”. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is often treated using a variety of approaches designed to address the underlying causes and enhance the patient’s quality of life. Numerous tactics are used in efficient therapies. Due to the fact that being overweight might contribute to airway obstruction, lifestyle changes including weight loss and consistent exercise are frequently advised. 

Conclusion and Relevance 

Obstructive Sleep Apnea is common and the prevalence is increasing with the increased prevalence of obesity. While daytime sleepiness is among the most prevalent symptoms of OSA, many people do not experience any symptoms at all. Patients with OSA who are asymptomatic or whose symptoms are only mildly concerning and do not appear to pose a risk to driving safety may be treated with behavioral techniques like exercise and weight loss. Interventions such as positive airway pressure are recommended for those with resistant hypertension and excessive sleepiness. There is currently insufficient high-quality evidence to support managing asymptomatic OSA to lower cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. If you’re seeking expert guidance for the diagnosis and management of Obstructive Sleep Apnea, look no further than contacting Dr. Sheetu Singh. She is a well-respected expert in the field of sleep medicine, renowned for her depth of understanding and caring for her patients.


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary and Asthma Disease are long-term respiratory conditions that make it difficult for an individual to breathe. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate more than 25 million people in the United States had Asthma as of 2019, including 5 million children under 18 years. Although neither ailment has a cure, there are treatments available. Inhaling medication into the airways directly with a nebulizer or a portable inhaler is the most popular form of therapy. These medicines help to diminish inflammation, clear any mucus build-up in the lungs and open up the airways. Some of the most ordinary inhaler types for COPD and Asthma include Beta-agonists, Corticosteroids, combination inhalers and Anticholinergics. 

Types of Inhalers 

Most types of inhalers are small enough to fit in a purse or pocket. This includes dry powder inhalers (DPI), metered-dose inhalers (MDI) and soft mist inhalers (SMI). The basic operation of each type of handheld inhaler is the same. They deliver medication through inhalation. To use an inhaler, an individual closes their mouth around the mouthpiece and inhales the drug from the canister. However, there are a few differences. For example:

  • MDI carries medicine in Aerosol form. The user must press the canister, to ignite the propellant and breathe in at the same time. 
  • DPI transfers medication without a propellant. The individual inhales the medicine into their lungs with their inward breath.
  • SMI is related to DPI as the individual uses their inward breath to inhale the medicine. However, SMIs have more particles than MIDs and DPI and the drug enters the lungs more gradually, allowing the patient to inhale more medication.

Each kind of inhaler has benefits and drawbacks and the amount of medication that enters a user’s lungs determines how effective the device is. Dr. Sheetu Singh consider a person’s attribute or features to determine which inhaler is best, including:

  • Cognitive status
  • Age
  • Ability to coordinate inhalation with activation of the canister
  • Manual dexterity

However, while managing Asthma in children under the age of 5, Dr. Sheetu Singh typically prescribes a valved holding chamber with a mask. The mask allows the kid to take diverse breaths to get the same amount of medication and drugs as breathing in one large puff. They may also recommend a nebulizer for young toddlers. 


Nebulizers are different types of inhaler devices that involve breathing through a mask. They consist of a container of liquid medicine, an air compressor and a tube that connects the two. A person uses a mask or a mouthpiece above the medicine container to inhale the mist. Nebulizers are available in electric versions and battery-powered. While they are larger than handheld inhalers, such as young children, they are perfect for those who might not be able to utilize an inhaler successfully. 

Inhalers for Asthma

When an individual has an Asthma attack, the airways in their lungs become narrow and inflamed and produce mucus which restricts the air supply. To treat chronic asthma symptoms and to relieve asthma attacks, asthma inhalers administer medication to the lungs. The medication in these inhaler types depends on a person’s needs and requirements. 


Inflammation in the airway is reduced by Corticosteroids, which also prevent Asthma attacks. These medications are long-term and controllers. The goal of controller asthma medication is to prevent the progression of asthma symptoms by gradually lowering airway inflammation. Common types of corticosteroids include:

  • Budesonide (Pulmicort Flexhaler)
  • Beclomethasone (Qvar)
  • Fluticasone (Flovent Diskus, Flovent HFA, Arnuity Ellipta)
  • Ciclesonide (Alvesco)
  • Mometasone (Asmanex)

Long-acting Beta-agonists 

LABA facilitates better breathing by relaxing the muscles that surround the airways of the lungs and maintaining their openness. The common combination inhalers include:

  • Budesonide and Formoterol (Symbicort)
  • Fluticasone and Salmeterol (Advair Diskus, Advair HFA)
  • Fluticasone and Vilanterol (Breo Ellipta)
  • Mometasone and Formoterol (Dulera)


Another sort of long-term controller medication is Anticholinergics. They assist in diminishing mucus production, widen the airways and relax the lung muscles. Tiotropium Bromide is an asthma controller medicine that Dr. Sheetu Singh is often prescribed with other controller therapies. 

Short-acting Beta-agonists 

Quick-acting beta-agonists or short-acting beta-agonists are rescue and quick-relief medicines. They work to open the airway and relieve symptoms quickly during an asthma flare-up. Common short-acting beta-agonists include:

  • Levalbuterol (Xopenex HFA)
  • Albuterol (ProAir HFA, Ventolin HFA)
  • Pirbuterol (Maxair Autohaler)

Inhalers for COPD 

COPD refers to multiple respiratory conditions that affect an individual’s ability to breathe including Emphysema, Chronic Bronchitis and Asthma. People with COPD disease might use inhaler devices to deliver medicine directly into their airways. COPD inhalers include quick-relief and rescue medications and long-term and controller medicines. 


The common inhaled corticosteroids for COPD include:-

  • Fluticasone (Flovent)
  • Beclomethasone (Qvar)
  • Mometasone (Asmanex)
  • Ciclesonide (Alvesco)
  • Flunisolide (Aerobid)
  • Budesonide (pulmicort)

Beta-agonist inhaler types 

The most popular inhaled beta-agonists, which last anywhere from 6 to 12 hours, are LABAs. These include:

  • Formoterol (Foradil; Perforomist)
  • Arformoterol (Brovana)
  • Salmeterol (Serevant)


Inhaled Anticholinergics for COPD include:

  • Glycopyrronium (Seebri Neohaler)
  • Aclidinium (Tudorza Pressair)
  • Tiotropium (Spiriva)
  • Ipratropium (Atrovent)
  • Umeclidinium (Incruse Ellipta)

Quick-acting Beta-agonists

Bronchodilators or short or quick-acting beta-agonists offer fast relief when a person has symptoms of a COPD flare-up such as coughing, wheezing and difficulty in breathing. Common bronchodilators include:

  • Levalbuterol (Xopenex HFA)
  • Albuterol (ProAir HFA, Proventil HFA, Ventolin HFA)
  • Albuterol and Ipratropium (Combivent)

Quick-acting beta-agonists usually come in an MDI inhaler, however a patient may occasionally utilize a nebulizer. These medications could have negative effects like:

  • Anxiety
  • Headache
  • Tremor
  • Restlessness
  • Irregular or increased heartbeats.


When it comes to our health, knowledge is power. Understanding medical conditions and their implications can make a world of difference, both in prevention and treatment. One such condition we’ll explore in this blog is Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (HP). It may sound complex, but we’ll break it down into simple terms, making it easy for everyone to comprehend. By the end of this article, you’ll have a clearer understanding of what HP is, its causes, symptoms, and potential treatments.

What is Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis?

What is Hypersensitivity PneumonitisHypersensitivity Pneumonitis, often referred to as HP, is a lung disease characterized by inflammation of the lung tissue. It occurs when your body’s immune system overreacts to inhaled allergens or irritants. Imagine your lungs as a sensitive alarm system – with HP, it’s like the alarm goes off even when there’s no real threat.

Causes of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

Causes of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

Understanding the causes of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (HP) is crucial in preventing and managing the condition. HP is primarily triggered by exposure to certain allergens or irritants. These can include:

  • Organic Dusts: Organic materials such as mold, fungi, and bacteria found in environments like farming or bird handling can lead to HP.
  • Chemicals: Exposure to certain chemicals, like those found in pesticides or plastics, can also increase the risk of developing HP.
  • Animal Droppings: If you’re a pet owner or work with animals, you might be at risk due to exposure to proteins in animal droppings.
  • Occupational Hazards: Some professions, like agriculture or woodworking, come with an increased risk of HP due to regular exposure to potential triggers.
  • Home Environment: Even your home can harbor HP triggers, especially if there’s mold or bacteria in damp areas.

Symptoms of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

Symptoms of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

Recognizing the symptoms of  Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (HP)  is essential for early diagnosis and treatment. The signs of HP can be similar to other respiratory conditions, so pay close attention if you experience:

  • Coughing: Persistent dry cough is a common early symptom of HP.
  • Shortness of Breath: As the condition progresses, you may find it increasingly difficult to catch your breath, especially during physical activity.
  • Fever: Some individuals with HP may experience fever, particularly if the condition becomes severe.
  • Fatigue: Feeling excessively tired even after adequate rest can be a symptom of HP.
  • Chest Tightness: You might feel a sensation of tightness or discomfort in your chest.
  • Weight Loss: Unexplained weight loss is another potential symptom.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Diagnosis and Treatment of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

If you suspect you may have HP based on the symptoms, it’s crucial to consult a healthcare professional. They can perform tests, such as pulmonary function tests and imaging scans, to confirm the diagnosis. Once diagnosed, treatment options will be discussed, which may include:

  • Avoiding Triggers: The first step in managing HP is to identify and avoid the substances or environments that trigger your symptoms.
  • Medications: Depending on the severity, your doctor may prescribe medications, such as corticosteroids, to reduce inflammation in your lungs.
  • Oxygen Therapy: In severe cases, oxygen therapy can help improve oxygen levels in your blood.
  • Pulmonary Rehabilitation: This involves a combination of exercise, education, and support to help you manage your condition and improve your quality of life.

In the next part of this blog, we will delve deeper into the risk factors associated with HP and provide practical tips on how to reduce your exposure to potential triggers. Stay tuned for valuable insights that can help you protect your lung health.

Risk Factors for Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

Understanding the risk factors associated with HP can help you take proactive steps to minimize your chances of developing this condition. Here are some factors to consider:

  • Occupational Exposure: Jobs that involve regular exposure to organic dust, chemicals, or animal proteins can significantly increase the risk of HP. It’s crucial for individuals in such professions to use proper protective equipment and follow safety guidelines.
  • Environmental Factors: Even if you’re not in an occupation with known triggers, your home environment can play a role. Damp and moldy areas, as well as the presence of birds or pets, can contribute to HP. Regular home maintenance and good ventilation are essential.
  • Genetic Predisposition: Some individuals may have a genetic predisposition to develop HP. If you have a family history of lung diseases or allergies, it’s important to be vigilant about potential triggers.
  • Immune System Health: A weakened immune system can make you more susceptible to HP. Ensuring you maintain a healthy lifestyle with a balanced diet, regular exercise, and adequate sleep can help boost your immune system.

Preventing Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

Prevention is always better than cure, and when it comes to HP, taking proactive steps to reduce your risk is crucial. Here are some strategies to consider:

  • Know Your Triggers: If you work in an environment where you may be exposed to potential HP triggers, educate yourself about the risks and take necessary precautions. Employers should provide proper safety equipment and training.
  • Maintain a Clean Home: Regularly inspect your home for signs of mold or dampness, especially in basements and bathrooms. Keep pets’ living areas clean and well-ventilated.
  • Use Protective Gear: If you’re in an occupation with known hazards, always use appropriate protective gear such as masks, gloves, and goggles to reduce exposure.
  • Monitor Your Health: Be attentive to any respiratory symptoms, especially if you work in a high-risk environment. Early detection and intervention can make a significant difference in managing HP.
  • Consult Your Doctor: If you suspect you have HP or are at risk, consult a healthcare professional for a thorough evaluation and guidance on managing your condition.
  • Allergen-Proof  Your Home: If you have known allergies or sensitivities, take steps to allergen-proof your home. This may include using air purifiers, regularly cleaning and vacuuming, and keeping windows closed during high pollen seasons.

By taking these precautions, you can significantly reduce your risk of developing Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis. Remember, your lung health is essential for overall well-being, and it’s worth investing time and effort in protecting it.

In case you feel the symptoms of HP ever, then here Dr. Sheetu Singh (MD, MNAMS, FRCP) is experienced with expert knowledge to cure your problem. Consult with her once, and we assure you will receive the expected relief and results.


Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease can receive treatments using a variety of inhaler devices and novel inhalers are continually being developed. The preparation and use techniques differ between each type of device and each has advantages and downsides. Many inhalers are used incorrectly because of inconsistent usage instructions, which can easily mislead both patients and medical professionals. 

The inhaled route is preferred for the delivery of Corticosteroids and Bronchodilators used in the maintenance therapy of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and Asthma. Small pharmacological doses are directly administered to the target area, resulting in a quick beginning of action and a minimal incidence of side effects. It is believed that inhaled medications must be stored in the lungs to have a positive impact. If you or someone you know is seeking guidance on inhaler treatment options for COPD, then Contact Dr. Sheetu Singh, a knowledgeable and experienced pulmonologist who specializes in respiratory care. Whether you are looking to explore dry powder inhalers, soft mist inhalers or other treatment options tailored to your specific requirements. She can offer priceless advice to assist you in managing your condition and enhancing your quality of life.

Pressurized Metered Dose Inhalers 

The PMDI was initially designed in 1956 to provide an inhaled bronchodilator delivery system with a multi-dose capacity and repeatable dosage features. PMDI contain propellants which are currently being changed from Chlorofluorocarbons to Hydrofluoroalkanes (HFAs) because the former damage the ozone layer in the stratosphere. Even with adequate inhaler technique, the majority of PMDIs only deposit 10–20% of the dose in the lungs; the remainder is deposited primarily in the Oropharynx. Recent formulations that formulate the medicine as a solution in HFA propellant as opposed to a suspension of micronized particles may result in higher lung deposition and decreased Oropharyngeal deposition. 

Using the proper PMDI technique entails firing the device while inhaling slowly and deeply, followed by a breath-holding pause to allow particles to settle on the airway surfaces. Most instructions recommend placing the mouthpiece between closed lips, but it’s also possible to hold the inhaler between open lips or even a few centimeters from the open mouth. PMDI is still widely used to administer inhaled medicines for asthma and COPD despite the challenges of utilizing them correctly: Pressurised Metered  Dose Inhalers contain at least 100 doses and are portable, convenient, compact and relatively inexpensive. 

Breath-Actuated Pressurised Metered-Dose Inhalers 

Patients inability to coordinate their firing and inhaling is typically regarded as the most significant issue with PMDI. Two such devices Autohaler and Easibreathe are currently being marketed and several others are in development. In BA PMDI, a mechanism that fires the device is activated by the patient inhaling via the device, synchronizing the firing and inhaling processes. These devices can achieve good lung deposition and clinical efficacy in patients unable to use a standard press and who have breathing difficulties. 

Pressurized Metered-Dose Inhalers Plus Spacer Devices 

Spacer devices are attachments to the inhaler mouthpiece with a volume ranging from 20-750ml. The mouthpiece of several of these devices has a one-way valve that keeps patients from accidentally blowing the dose away after firing it. The one-way valve must be activated by a powerful enough inhale, though otherwise the dose will not be administered. Spacers assist in overcoming coordination problems as inhalation can take place either as the device is fired after a short pause with the latter method being recommended for some models. Old Freon issues are unlikely with spacer devices, due to the source of aerosol generation being further away from the mouth than it is with a PMDI. Ideally, each PMDI dose should be inhaled separately from the spacer. While spacers are good drug-delivery devices, They have the apparent drawback of making the delivery system as a whole less portable, compact and practical than a typical PMDI. 

DRY Powder Inhalers 

Dry powder inhalers have emerged as valuable treatment options for individuals suffering from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. DPIs are efficient and effective as they deliver medication directly to the lungs in the form of dry powder. One of the foremost advantages of DPI is its ease of use. It is especially helpful for people with COPD who might have trouble controlling their breathing when using an inhaler. Dry powder inhalers are also portable, allowing patients to carry their medication and drugs with them for quick relief when needed. 

Moreover, they provide an instant onset of action, offering immediate relief of symptoms like wheezing and shortness of breath. The availability of DPIs in a range of formulations, such as bronchodilators and corticosteroids, enables the development of individualized treatment programs that are suited to the unique requirements of COPD patients. As a whole, dry powder inhalers have transformed the way COPD is managed, providing patients with this chronic respiratory ailment with a convenient and efficient way to manage their symptoms, increased lung function and a higher quality of life.

Soft Mist Inhalers 

The use of soft mist inhalers has significantly improved the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). These devices provide medication in the form of a fine mist, allowing for a leisurely and gentle inhaling process that is especially helpful for COPD patients who may have trouble with the strong inhalation required by some other inhaler forms. SMI are user-friendly, they are appropriate for a variety of patients, including those with reduced lung function, as they do not require strong hand-breath coordination. They also provide precision dosing and have the ability to deliver a mix of bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory drugs, treating both immediate symptoms and underlying inflammation.


Metered dose inhalers, dry powder inhalers and nebulizers are modes of aerosol drug delivery that are used to treat respiratory disorders such as Obstructive Lung Disorders, Asthma, Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, Cystic Fibrosis and Infectious Pulmonary Disease. A spacer is an external device connected to an MDI, to enhance drug administration through improved actuation and inhalation coordination. To inquire about inhalers, contact Dr. Sheetu Singh, a knowledgeable and experienced healthcare professional specializing in respiratory care. She can offer you professional advice and suggestions that are suited to your unique needs. 

What is a Metered Dose Inhaler?

Metered dose inhalers are tiny devices that propel a medicinal spray into the airways. Dry powder inhalers also administer medication, but the powdered medication needs to be inhaled deeply to reach the airways. 

The advantages of MDIs is as follows:

  • Multidose delivery capability
  • Portability
  • Lower risk of bacterial contamination

The disadvantages of MDIs are as follows:

  • the necessity of coordinated actuation and inhalation
  • Oropharyngeal drug deposition

What are Nebulizers?

Nebulizers are devices that convert liquid medications into a tiny mist that may be inhaled easily. They can be powered by batteries or electricity. A mouthpiece or facemask that is placed over the nose and mouth allows the mist to exit the machine through a tube. Children frequently utilize nebulizers as they don’t need to exert any effort to breathe the drug into their airways. 

Nebulizers have the advantages listed below:

  • Patients who are unable to employ alternative inhalation techniques should receive therapy
  • Permit administering high amounts of medication
  • Patient coordination is not required

The following are the disadvantages of Nebulizers: 

  • Higher cost
  • Decreased portability
  • Longer administration time and set-up
  • A supply of compressed air or oxygen (a jet nebulizer) may be required

What are Spacers?

Spacers are canisters that attach to the mouthpieces of metered dose inhalers making  the inhalers easier to use. Spacers make it easy for the user to use the inhaler and assist with the right dosage of the medication to be delivered.

What are Metered Dose Inhalers, Spacers and Nebulizers Used For?

Breathing diseases like asthma are typically treated with nebulizers, dry powder inhalers, and metered dose inhalers:

  • Asthma
  • Obstructive lung disease (also known as COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)
    • Chronic bronchitis
    • Emphysema
  • Pulmonary Arterial hypertension
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Infectious pulmonary disease

Aerosol drug delivery may also be used with some types of non-respiratory therapy. Inhalers can be used to administer medication for:

  • Pain relief
  • Diabetes
  • Genetic diseases
  • Thyroid disorders

What are Metered Dose Inhaler and Nebulizer Medications?

Metered dose inhaler medications include:-

  • Beclomethasone Dipropionate (QVAR)
  • Ventolin, Proventil, Ventolin HFA, Proventil HFA, and Proair HFA are variants of albuterol sulfate
  • Cromolyn sodium (Intal)
  • Ciclesonide (Alvesco)
  • Flunisolide Hemihydrate (Aerospan HFA)
  • Flunisolide (AeroBid, AeroBid-M)
  • Fluticasone Propionate (Flovent HFA)
  • pratropium Bromide/Albuterol Sulfate (Combivent Respimat)
  • Mometasone/Formoterol (Dulera)
  • Triamcinolone Acetonide (Azmacort)

Dry powder inhaler medications include:

  • Budesonide (Pulmicort Flexhaler)
  • budesonide/Formoterol HFA (Symbicort)
  • Fluticasone propionate (Flovent Diskus)
  • Formoterol Furmate (Foradil Aerolizer)
  • Mometasone Furoate (Asmanex Twisthaler)
  • Salmeterol Xinafoate (Serevent Diskus)
  • Tiotropium Bromide (Spiriva Handihaler) 

Nebulizer medications include:

  • Albuterol Sulfate (Proventil, AccuNeb)
  • Arformoterol Tartrate (Brovana)
  • Budesonide (Pulmicort Respules)
  • Formoterol Fumarate (Perforomist)
  • Cromolyn Sodium (Intal)
  • Ipratropium Bromide 
  • Levalbuterol Hydrochloride (Xopenex)

How Do You Use Metered Dose Inhalers, Spacers and Nebulizers?

The thorough method for employing a metered dose inhaler is: 

  • Take off the cap, then hold the inhaler vertically.
  • Shake the inhaler
  • Exhale gently for three to five seconds.
  • Slowly take a breath through your mouth while releasing the medication by pressing the inhaler once.
  • If possible, hold the breath for ten seconds to allow the medicine to reach deep into the lungs
  • If more than 1 puff (actuation) is required, follow the procedure above again, pausing for at least a minute in between each actuation.

The general technique for using a spacer is:-

  • Make sure the spacer is clean and put together properly by the manufacturer’s instructions.
  • Shake the inhaler canister well to mix the medication
  • Take it off the cap from the inhaler mouthpiece
  • Insert the mouthpiece of the inhaler into the open end of the spacer. Make sure it fits tightly
  • Breathe out fully to empty your lungs. This makes it more likely that the drug will be deeply inhaled into your lungs.
  • To inhale medicine into the spacer, press down on the inhaler canister once.
  • Start taking calm, deep breaths via your mouth once the drug has been released into the spacer. It ought to take 5-7 seconds to complete this.
  • Remove the spacer from your mouth after taking the prescription, then hold your breath for ten seconds to help the medicine penetrate your lungs completely.
  • Breath out gently and slowly
  • After use, clean the spacer as per the manufacturer’s instructions and allow it to air dry. 

An air compressor, nebulizer cup, mouthpiece or mask and medicine measuring equipment are all included in a nebulizer kit. The general method for using a nebulizer is:

  • Put together the nebulizer kit and plug in the power source.
  • Close the nebulizer cup after adding the prescribed dosage of medicine.
  • The mouthpiece or mask should be attached to the top of the nebulizer cup.
  • Connect the air compressor with the tubing at the nebulizer cup’s base.
  • activate on the gas pressure source at the reservoir’s mouth.
  • Inhale slowly through your mouth, occasionally taking deep breaths.
  • Confirm that a mist is produced by turning the nebulizer on.
  • If a mask is worn, make sure it is properly fastened.
  • Breathe through the mouth for the duration of the therapy. 
  • If the nebulizer begins to splutter, turn it off.Contact Dr. Sheetu Singh


What is MDI?

A pressurized sprayer known as a metered dose inhaler provides a specific dosage of medication. It is typically used to treat respiratory conditions like COPD and Asthma. Metered dose inhalers are simple to use. It comprises a compact, pressurized container holding medication, a dosage indicator and a mouthpiece or mask used for administering the medication. When the MDI is activated, the patient inhales the small mist or spray of medication that is released in a specific amount into their lungs. MDIs are a practical and efficient approach to delivering medicines straight to the airways, offering rapid relief from bronchospasm and inflammation. 

Advantages of Metered Dose Inhaler:-

  • Compact and portable
  • Cheaper than DPIs
  • Minimal preparation
  • The use of a spacer enhances the administration of drugs 
  • Accurate dose
  • Short delivery time
  • Drug preparation is not required

Disadvantages of Metered Dose Inhaler: –

  • require coordination between the actuation and inhalation if not utilized with a spacer
  • For persons who lead an active lifestyle, spacers may not always be practical or available, and they may not always be covered by drug insurance
  • High oropharyngeal deposition
  • Requires propellants
  • The technique is crucial for drug distribution

How to use a Metered Dose Inhaler?

Managing respiratory diseases like asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requires the appropriate use of a metered dose inhaler (MDI). Start by taking off the cap and shaking the inhaler to make sure the medication is thoroughly mixed before using an MDI. To prepare your lungs, take a deep breath, then slowly exhale while standing or sitting up straight. You should inhale deeply as you gently start to press down on the canister to release a puff of the medication. Hold your breath for around 10 seconds to help the medicine reach your airways deeply. 

What is DPI?

A Dry Powder Inhaler is a type of inhaler commonly used to deliver medications such as inhaled corticosteroids into the lungs. This inhaler is breath-activated. The drug is released only when you take a fast, deep breath in through the inhaler. This is distinct from a metered dose inhaler, which propels drugs into the lungs. Advair Diskus, Asmanex, and Pulmicort Flexhaler are a few examples of dry powder inhalers. DPIs are an effective and feasible method to manage respiratory problems, but for optimal treatment results, patients must maintain adequate inhalation techniques.

Advantages of Dry Powder Inhaler:-

  • Portable and compact
  • No need for a spacer
  • No propellant
  • Actuation is caused by deep inspiration, hence there is no need to coordinate it with inhalation
  • Add dose counters that show how many doses are remaining in the device

Disadvantages of Dry Powder Inhaler: –

  • More costly
  • The released dose could be impacted by both humidity and temperature in the environment
  • Greater inspiratory flow rates are necessary for pulmonary deposition of excellent quality
  • Some certain lactose
  • Some have earlier expiration dates than others

How to use Dry Powder Inhaler? 

A dry powder inhaler is an Asthma treatment option for older teens and kids. A DPI makes it possible for the medication to enter the lungs deeply. These inhalers store the medication as a dry powder, as opposed to other inhalers that puff the medication. You must breathe quickly and deeply to get the medication into your lungs as it is inside a powder. If you have any further queries about dry powdered inhalers, contact Dr. Sheetu Singh, Her passion for improving the lives of individuals with respiratory conditions was truly inspiring. 

What is the Difference Between MDI and DPI 

Metered Dose Inhalers and Dry Powder Inhalers are two common devices used for delivering medication to the lungs, especially for the treatment of respiratory conditions like Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Asthma. They differ in their features and modes of action: 

  • Activation: MDIs necessitate synchronization between squeezing the canister and inhaling the drug. To ensure optimal medicine delivery, users must time their inhalation with the inhaler’s activation. Whereas, DPIs do not require coordination between inhalation and activation. The powder is simply breathed in by users at their leisure.
  • Easy to use: It may be difficult for some users to effectively coordinate the inhalation and activation, particularly for young people and those who have specific physical or cognitive disabilities. Whereas, DPIs are often considered easier to use for some people, including those who have trouble controlling their breathing with MDIs. 
  • Portability: MDIs are typically compact and small, making them easy to carry in a purse or pocket. Whereas, DPIs are also rather portable and small, even though they could be a little bigger than MDIS.
  • Maintenance: The temperature and humidity can have an impact on MDIs and they need to be cleaned frequently. Whereas, DPIs may need less maintenance than MDIs as they don’t use propellants. However, it’s still crucial to handle and store things properly.


International Yoga Day is celebrated on 21st June every year. This day is the longest day of the year and yoga helps people live longer lives. As the sun rises on 21st June 2024, individuals from all around the world will gather to celebrate International Yoga Day. International Yoga Day celebrates the spiritual and physical prowess that yoga has brought to the world stage. Although millions of people participate and practice it daily, it is a significant source of exercise and good activities. 

When is International Yoga Day 2024?

International Yoga Day 2024 :- Stretch your body and calm your mind like never before on International Yoga Day on June 21. This special day is devoted to the holistic practice of yoga, which encourages physical, mental and spiritual well-being. It’s a time when individuals from various backgrounds assemble and take part in yoga classes, workshops and events all around the world, highlighting the attraction of this age-old practice to people of all ages and backgrounds. So, mark your calendars for June 21st 2024, and join the global celebrations of International Yoga Day to experience the many advantages of yoga for a healthier, more well-balanced life. 

History of International Yoga Day 

People all across the world are getting ready to start exercising on their yoga mats for International Yoga Day, but many may not be aware that yoga has a long history. Yoga is considered as an ancient practice that began in India more than 5,000 years ago. Yoga flourished as a way to interconnect the body, mind and soul to step closer into enlightenment. As the method gained popularity in the West, it was promoted as a kind of exercise and relaxation that might also help with chronic pain and physical injuries. 

The idea of International Yoga Day was first initiated by Prime Minister Mr. Narendra Modi on September 27, 2014, during his speech at the UN General Assembly, where India’s ambassador, Asoke Kumar Mukerji, proposed a resolution designating June 21 as International Yoga Day. 

The date of June 21 was selected as it is the Summer Solstice, the day of the year with the maximum sunshine. Overall, it received support from 177 nations, the most number of sponsors to a UN resolution declaring June 21 as International Yoga Day. The first International Yoga Day was celebrated on June 21, 2015, in New Delhi by nearly 36,000 participants, including Prime Minister Modi and numerous other prominent political figures from around the world. Since then, the day has been commemorated in countries all over the world. 

Themes of Internationa Yoga Day 

  • International Yoga Day 2021 Theme 

In 2021, the theme for Yoga Day was “Yoga for well-being”. The theme emphasized the value of yoga for a person’s health. Since 2021 was also the year when the world was fighting the pandemic, individuals and communities all around the world realized the significance of the theme.

  • International Yoga Day 2022 Theme 

International Yoga Day has a different theme each year. Celebrations and discussions are held locally, nationally, and internationally depending on the theme. Ever since 21st June was announced as World Yoga Day, various schools, organizations and corporations have hosted diverse events to spread awareness about yoga as an exercise. The theme for Yoga Day in 2022 was “Yoga for Humanity.”

  • International Yoga Day 2023 Theme 

International Yoga Day 2023 was celebrated on the theme “Yoga for Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam”, which also represents ‘one earth, one family, one future’. This theme emphasizes how regular yoga practice contributes to the well-being of every person, regardless of discrimination.  

Event Details for International Day of Yoga 2024 

Date: June 21, 2024

Venue: Multiple locations and online

Significance of International Yoga Day 

Yoga is an old practice that combines meditation, physical postures, breathing exercises and ethical principles to promote the overall well-being of individuals. International yoga day in 2024 will inspire people to practice yoga regularly and experience its beneficial effects on their physical and mental health. Before delving into the 2024 event, it’s important to understand why International Yoga Day is celebrated worldwide. The day, which was instituted by the United Nations in 2014, aims to promote yoga as a comprehensive strategy for wellbeing. International Yoga Day 2024 aims to highlight the contribution that yoga may make to accomplishing the 17 sustainable development goals set forth by the United Nations earlier this year. 

International Yoga Day Timeline 

  • 200 BCE (beginnings): It has been discovered that these are the earliest reports of Yoga. 
  • September 27, 2014 (India proposes): Narendra Modi and the Indian delegation propose to create International Yoga Day. 
  • June 21, 2015 (first ever): In India, the first-ever Yoga Day is celebrated by almost 36,000 people.
  • June 21, 2018 (yoga for all): Over 100,000 people attend the biggest yoga class, which is held in India.

Why do we celebrate Yoga only on 21st June?

International Yoga Day is celebrated annually on June 21st every year to spread awareness about the benefits of meditation and yoga worldwide. This specific date was chosen because it marks the summer solstice in the Northern Hemisphere, when the day is the longest and the energies of nature are thought to be perfectly aligned. The day is celebrated on 21st June every year, is a global event that promotes the mental, physical and spiritual benefits of practicing Yoga.


Nebulizers and inhalers, which were introduced to the world in the 1930s and 1950s, respectively, were precisely the inventions that patients with lung conditions like asthma had long wished for. This meant that patients could now easily inhale the medication that was required to manage and treat their illnesses. Nebulizers were the first to be invented and were certainly appreciated, but you couldn’t carry one about with you to work or school. As a result, when inhalers were introduced, they swiftly replaced other options as the preferred form of respiratory treatment. So, before looking at the same for nebulizers, let’s look into the benefits and drawbacks of the preferred inhaler. 

The Benefits of Inhalers: –

  • Allow for the quick delivery of medications to the airways, which is appropriate for COPD and asthma medications. 
  • Lightweight, small and easily portable in a pocket, purse or suitcase.
  • Quite simple to use when given the right instructions.

The Disadvantage of Inhalers: –

  • Small, portable, and quite simple to misplace, occasionally necessitating a search to recover one, often in cough cushions and beneath beds. 
  • Difficult for some individuals to coordinate, particularly mentally challenged, young children and the elderly
  • They are less suitable during asthma and COPD flare-ups or the final stages of COPD as they need a specific inspiratory flow to activate the medication. 
  • It’s simple to use an inhaler fast (puff-puff) and secretly. 

The Advantage of Nebulizers:-

  • Allowing for quick medication delivery to the airways is ideal for people with asthma and COPD.
  • Quite easy to coordinate and relatively easy to use (just breathe normally)
  • The medication is simple to inhale, independent of airflow restrictions brought on by flare-ups and advanced COPD. 
  • Nebulizers and air compressors are useful backups if you can’t find your inhaler as they are less portable and more likely to be found right where you left them. 

The Disadvantage of Nebulizers: –

  • The majority of air compressors need an electric source
  • The majority of affordable nebulizers are not easily portable
  • Nebulizer treatments frequently take 10 to 20 minutes, which presents a challenge in the fast-paced environment of today. 

Which Asthma Control Medication is Most Effective for Your Needs? 

The market is flooded with so many asthma controller medications that there are too many choices. A common query I get is: Which one is better for me? To answer this, Dr. Sheetu Singh suggests some basic components of Asthma.

  • Chronic  – Every asthmatic has some level of airway inflammation in their air passages.
  • Acute – When this chronic inflammation goes uncontrolled, exposure to asthma triggers may exacerbate it, leading to increased mucus production and airway spasms, both of which make breathing difficult. 

Based on this knowledge, Dr. Sheetu Singh knows that the best way to treat Asthma is:-

  • Control: The reduction of underlying inflammation
  • Prevention: Prevent asthma symptoms
  • Treat flare-ups: As soon as an acute symptom appears, treat it. 

When you reach this stage of asthma therapy, you decide to take asthma medications for the rest of your life. The average time it takes for a medication to start working is two to three weeks. You must take the medication every single day of your life for it to be effective, even when you feel well. You must therefore continue taking your controller medications even if you are feeling well today.  

The best part about today’s available asthma controller medications is that they are all just required to be taken once or twice a day. All you have to do is take your inhaler before you brush your teeth in the morning and also in the evening. The use of a nebulizer instead of an inhaler can be beneficial for some asthmatics. These would include:

  • Infants and young kids who are unable to use an inhaler 
  • adults with mental disabilities and the elderly who are unable to control an inhaler
  • Those with severe asthma who struggle to produce enough flow to activate inhalers

The best asthma medication for you relies on how severe your asthma is. Typically, Dr. Sheetu Singh will begin treatment with a straightforward inhaled steroid; if this works, no more therapy is required. Common inhaled steroids are: 

  • Qvar (beclomethasone): Two puffs from an inhaler, twice daily
  • Flovent (fluticasone): 1-2 puffs or inhalers twice a day
  • Pulmicort (budesonide): Nebulizer used to administer the solution twice daily 

Those medications are excellent if they work! You may now proceed. A long-acting beta-adrenergic medication along with an inhaled steroid may be advised by your doctor if you use one of them for a month or two and your asthma is still deemed to be poorly controlled. 

  • Advair discus (fluticasone, salmeterol): 1 inhaler twice daily.
  • Symbicort Turbohalert or inhaler (budesonide, formoterol): 2 puffs twice daily.
  • Dulera (mometasone, formoterol): 2 puffs twice daily.
  • Breo Ellipta (fluticasone, vilanterol): 1 puff once daily.
  • brovana/Pulmicort (formoterol): twice daily solution taken in a nebulizer .


Infectious Diseases in Adults :- Infectious illnesses account for one-third of all fatalities in adults aged 65 and older. The usual warning signs and symptoms, such as fever and leukocytosis, are frequently missing in the elderly, making early detection more challenging. The only presenting issue in an older patient with an illness can be a change in mental status or a reduction in function. Pneumonia is estimated to be the cause of 90 percent of deaths in people 65 and older. The elderly are primarily affected by influenza-related mortality. The most frequent cause of bacteremia in older persons is urinary tract infections. Asymptomatic bacteriuria occurs frequently in the elderly; however, antibiotic therapy does not seem to be effective. 

The elderly are particularly affected by the recent surge of antibiotic-resistant bacteria as they are more likely to contract infections in hospitals and other institutional settings. It is difficult to treat colonization and active infection; careful commitment to hygiene precautions is required to stop the spread of resistant microorganisms. Despite improvements in antibiotic treatment, infectious illnesses continue to be a leading cause of death in older persons. Physicians face distinct challenges while treating infections in elderly persons due to the diagnostic and therapeutic complexities.

Fever in Adults 

Fever is a raised body temperature that occurs when the body’s thermostat—located in the brain’s hypothalamus—resets at a higher temperature, typically in response to an illness. Hyperthermia is the medical term for elevated body temperature that isn’t brought on by a reset of the thermostat. Several body parts allow for the measurement of body temperature. The most common sites are the rectum and the mouth. Other sites include the forehead, ear and ideally Armpit. A digital thermometer is typically used to measure temperature. 

Oral temperatures are considered elevated when

  • In the morning, they are greater than 99° F (37° C).
  • At any moment after the early morning, they are greater than 100.4° F (38° C).
  • They are higher than the known average daily temperature of an individual.

Causes of Fever in Adults 

Substances that cause fever are known as Pyrogens. Pyrogens can originate from both inside and outside the body. Examples of pyrogens created outside the body include microorganisms and the compounds they produce such as toxins. Pyrogens formed inside the body are usually produced by Macrophages and Monocytes. Fever may also result from inflammation, a reaction to an allergic reaction, a drug, Autoimmune disorders and undetected cancer, especially Lymphoma, Leukemia or kidney cancer. Fever is a symptom of many diseases. They can be generally divided into:

  • Infectious (most common)
  • Neoplastic (cancer)
  • Inflammatory

Most Common Causes 

Fever can be caused by almost all infectious diseases. However, the majority of infectious causes are:

  • Lower and upper respiratory tract infections
  • Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
  • Gastrointestinal infections
  • Skin infections

Risk factors

People who have certain conditions (risk factors) are more likely to get a fever. These elements consist of the following:

  • The person’s health status
  • Certain occupations
  • The person’s age
  • Use of certain drugs and medical procedures
  • exposure to diseases, such as those brought on by travel or by coming into contact with sick people, animals or insects.

Evaluation of Fever in Adults 

A doctor can identify an infection based on a patient’s medical history, physical examination and occasionally a few quick tests like a chest x-ray and urine tests. Dr Sheetu Singh initially evaluated people with an acute fever, they focused on two general issues:

  • Finding other symptoms such as cough or headache; The wide range of potential causes is reduced by these symptoms.
  • Determining whether the individual is chronically or seriously ill; many potential acute viral infections resolve on their own and are challenging for clinicians to specifically diagnose, that is identify the specific virus that is causing the infection. It can be less expensive, wasteful, and frequently useless to restrict testing to those who are gravely or chronically unwell. 

Warning signs 

Some symptoms and traits in patients with an acute fever are concerning. They include:

  • Stiff neck, headache or both
  • Low blood pressure 
  • A modification of mental state such as confusion
  • Petechiae, which are small, flat, purple-red spots on the skin that signify internal bleeding
  • Rapid breathing or rapid heart rate
  • Shortness of breath
  • a temperature that is greater than 104° F 40° C or less than  95° F 35° C
  • Recent travel to a region where an endemic (regular) infectious disease, like malaria, is present
  • Recent usage of immunosuppressants, medications that weaken the immune system 

Essentials for Older People: Fever 

Fever can be challenging in older people because the body may not respond the way it would in younger age. For instance, infection is less likely to result in fever in elderly, fragile individuals. Even when the temperature is raised due to an infection, it may be lower than the standard for a fever and the level of the fever may not be consistent with how serious the condition is. Similarly, other symptoms, such as pain may be less noticeable. A change in mental function or a decline in everyday functioning is frequently the only other early indicator of pneumonia or a urinary tract infection. 

However, older people with a fever are more likely to have a serious bacterial infection than younger adults with a fever. A respiratory or urinary tract infection is frequently the cause, much like in younger adults. Soft-tissue and skin infections are also common causes in older people. Serious respiratory viral infections such as influenza, COVID-19 and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are more common in older adults.


According to the World Health Organization, infection prevention and control (IPC) is a scientific strategy and workable solution created to stop the harm that parasites can do to patients and healthcare professionals. It is an element of epidemiology that is important for understanding social sciences, global health and infectious illnesses. To improve patient safety and the health system overall, effective IPC is a public health concern. According to the WHO’s core components of IPC, access to healthcare services that are designed and managed to reduce the risks of preventable HAI for patients and healthcare workers is a fundamental human right. Dr. Sheetu Singh plays a pivotal role in infectious disease prevention and control through her multifaceted contributions. She is an expert in many facets of this crucial matter, beginning with the quick and effective diagnosis and treatment of infectious disorders.

The Spread of Infectious Disease

An infection is defined as the successful transmission of pathogenic microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, parasites or fungi that are spread. 

  • Directly:-
    • From person to person
    • Through respiratory droplets such as sneezing or coughing
    • Through fluids from the body
    • exposure to an infectious pathogen directly from the environment
    • During childbirth from mother to fetus
  • Indirectly:- 
    • Biological- intermediate host or vector such as Zika virus
    • Mechanical- vehicle or vector such as Plague transmission of Yersinia Pestis by Fleas
    • Airborne such as Tuberculosis

Epidemiological Triad 

Human infections occur when an infectious bacterium enters the body, multiplies and triggers an immune response that may lead to an infectious disease. The Epidemiological Triad is a set of three factors that are necessary for infectious disease transmission. 

  • The agent– The microorganisms that cause the infection and can be in the form of viruses, bacteria, parasites or fungi
  • The Host– The target of the disease
  • The Environment– The conditions and surroundings (which are external to the disease)

Infection Spread in Healthcare 

Due to the presence and proportion of susceptible people, healthcare facilities, including hospitals and primary care clinics, are a place where disease transmission is more likely to occur. During treatment, one in ten individuals contracts an infection though efficient infection control lowers healthcare-associated infections by at least 30%. The three elements necessary for infection propagation in a medical context are as follows: –

  • Source – places where infectious agents survive like hospital equipment, sinks, countertops and medical devices.
    • Environment- Sinks, hospital equipment, patient care areas, medical devices and countertops
    • People- healthcare workers, patients or visitors 
  • Susceptible person – Someone who has a weakened immune system, is not immunized against a certain infectious disease, or is not immune to it. 
    • Additionally, underlying medical disorders, drugs and essential treatments and procedures like surgery that raise the risk of infection can make people more susceptible.
  • Transmission – How bacteria are transferred to the affected person
    • Touch including via medical equipment or a susceptible person such as VRE or MRSA
    • Splashes or sprays for example, Pertussis
    • Inhalation of Aerosolized particles like Measles or TB.
    • Bleeding pathogens are spread through sharp injuries such as HBV, HIV and HCV. 

Controlling Infectious Diseases Within Communities 

Infection control and prevention is a global concern and numerous protocols and recommendations can be followed to reduce the spread of infection among individuals, within a group and globally. Identifying at-risk groups such as kids, the elderly and those with chronic illnesses, can also help direct initiatives to safeguard these groups. The first step in infection control may be to alter community practices, such as: –

  • Regular hand washing
  • Appropriate use of body and face masks prevents the spread of and protects from respiratory infections
  • Using insect repellents
  • Participating in immunization programs and ensuring current routine vaccines
  • Taking prescribed medications such as Antibiotics as directed by health professionals
  • Avoiding contact with outsiders-social distancing
  • Using protection when intimate, especially with new partners. 

Other steps that can be taken to stop the spread inside communities include environmental controls like:-

  • Surveillance of diseases
  • Modifying environments
  • Food safety
  • Air quality

Medical Interventions 

There are biochemical interventions that can be used in addition to straightforward measures to prevent and control infections to hasten the healing process and in certain situations, totally prevent viral infections. The development of Antivirals, Antibiotics and Vaccinations has been shown to speed up recovery, infectious illness spread is slowed down and in some cases eliminated from communities. 


Antibiotics are administered for bacterial illnesses to boost the body’s natural defense mechanism in eradicating pathogenic microorganisms. They are intended to either eradicate germs or prevent their reproduction. However, improper use of antibiotics, excessive prescription and bacterial mutation have resulted in the creation of resistant bacteria. 


The purpose of vaccinations is to increase immunity to a certain disease. Small amounts of the disease-causing virus or bacteria are introduced into the host during vaccinations to help the recipient develop natural immunity. The introduction of regular vaccines has slowed down and in some cases eradicated certain diseases such as Measles, Polio, Mumps, whooping cough and Rubeola. There are other vaccines available to prevent chickenpox, but they are only given to people who are at high risk of passing the illness to people who have compromised immune systems. 


Antibiotics provide no defense against infectious diseases that are caused by viral agents such as HIV, Influenza, Hepatitis and Herpes. Antiviral medications are most effective in these circumstances for preventing the infection from spreading and boosting immunity. 

Standard Precautions for All Patient Care: –
  • Perform hand hygiene
  • To prevent infection, put on personal protective equipment PPE
  • Follow cough etiquette principles/respiratory hygiene
  • Ensure appropriate isolation precautions and patient placement
  • Properly clean, handle and disinfect patient care equipment and medical instruments.
  • improving the flow of information among medical professionals, particularly when referring patients who may be contagious.


Although “infectious” and “contagious” are frequently used interchangeably to describe illnesses their meanings are quite different. Infectious and communicable diseases are two different types of illnesses with different symptoms and transmission modes. Communicable diseases are those that can be transmitted from one person to another through various methods such as droplets, direct contact or contaminated surfaces. These illnesses frequently spread quickly within communities and if not properly controlled, can cause outbreaks or epidemics. 

On the other hand, infectious diseases encompass a broader range of illnesses caused by microorganisms like viruses, fungi, bacteria or parasites. Not all infectious diseases are contagious, even though many of them are, as some can be spread by mosquitoes or the environment.  As a result, all communicable diseases are infectious, not all infectious diseases are necessarily communicable. Dr. Sheetu Singh, a specialist in infectious diseases, possesses the knowledge and experience needed to treat, diagnose and provide invaluable advice on various infectious ailments. 

Infectious Disease

An infectious disease is merely an infection. That occurs when a bacterium enters your body and settles in. This entails an exponential rate of cell division and growth for bacteria and fungi. On the other hand, viruses face the additional challenge of invading human cells and seizing control of their functioning centers. 

Infectious & Not Communicable

Although all communicable diseases are infectious, not all infections are communicable. For example, Tetanus can cause an infection, but a person with Tetanus infection can’t spread it to another person. The bacteria live in dust and dirt and get inside your body through abrasions like scrapes, cuts or punctures. Although the bacterium can cause extremely dangerous infections and illnesses in people, it will almost certainly never cause a worldwide pandemic. 

Invisible Infections Communicable Disease

A communicable disease is a contagious one. The effect is external. If someone contracts the disease, they may fall ill and infect the next person with the pathogen, which could be a virus, cold or other disease-causing agent. This can lead to isolated outbreaks and small or full-scale pandemics. The flu is one example of this, which occurs annually in the United States from around October to May. The influenza virus spreads widely as it is conveyed from person to person and through contaminated objects. One to two additional people who aren’t immune will probably catch the virus for every person who already has it. 

Methods of Transmission

Nature is inventive when it comes to how viruses might spread through a population. These are just a few of the most common ways that bacteria spread. 

  • Person-to-person 

Pathogens that go from one person to another can be transmitted several ways through respiratory droplets like sneezing or coughing, contact with blood, sexual activity or from mother to child during birth, pregnancy or breastfeeding. Although the germ can spread more easily when you are actively ill and sneezing or coughing frequently, you don’t need to have symptoms to be contagious. For instance, Measles can be spread up to four days before the distinctive rash appears and the virus can remain in the air for up to two hours after you leave the area. 

  • Vectors 

Certain microbes are transmitted by a more convoluted person-vector path rather than directly from person to person. For instance, mosquitoes carry the parasite that causes malaria after biting a person who has the disease and then transmitting it to the next person they bite. The mere presence of mosquitoes is insufficient for disease transmission; they primarily act as conduits. Without the presence of individuals infected with malaria, mosquitoes cannot transmit the disease. 

  • Fomites 

Hand-washing holds great significance in disease prevention due to the abundance of everyday objects we come into contact with, teeming with harmful germs capable of causing illness. During flu and cold season, It’s usual for viruses to spread to the next person by accidentally wiping a runny nose and then touching a doorknob. When you approach them from behind to open the same door, the viruses adhere to your skin and wait for an opening to enter your body, frequently when you are rubbing your eyes or touching your nose.

  • Fecal-Oral and Foodborne 

The term fecal-oral refers to the transmission of germs through an oral surface that has been polluted with feces. For instance, a person who neglected to wash their hands after using the restroom can infect a doorknob. If another person touches the same doorknob and then puts his or her hand in their mouth, they could become infected. 

Another way of contamination is food poisoning, caused by ingestion of toxins usually from spoiled food. The spoiled food may contain parasites, toxins and bacteria. Most often the bacteria that spoil food and can cause illness in humans include Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, Coli, Botulinum, Cholera, Campylobacter and Listeria.


The Impact of 28 Devastating Infectious Diseases :- Infectious diseases still exist today and have affected human history. Such contagious diseases are on many of our minds as the new coronavirus spreads over mainland China and other parts of the world. Here is a look at some of the worst of these epidemics, including the latest SARS, new coronavirus and Zika virus as well as Ebola and Dengue. 

  1. The new coronavirus :-
    The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is a fresh coronavirus strain that initially surfaced in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. In China, the virus has caused more than 40,000 illnesses and 900 deaths as of February 10, 2020. The huge virus family known as coronaviruses is responsible for many respiratory diseases. These viruses are those that cause MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome) and SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome).
  2. Smallpox  :-
    Smallpox causes skin lesions, which emerged about 3000 years ago in India or Egypt before sweeping across the globe. According to the World Health Organization, the Variola virus, which causes smallpox, left up to a third of those it infected dead, while also leaving other victims with scars and blindness.  In 1980, the WHO declared the disease officially eradicated after a decade-long vaccination campaign. Facilities in the US and Russia are holding the virus’s final samples.
  3. Plague :-
    There are three different types of the disease, but the most well-known is bubonic plague, which is distinguished by buboes, or painful enlarged lymph nodes. Plague can have a 50% to 60% fatality rate in people who are not treated, according to the WHO, even though the disease is treatable because of antibiotics introduced in the 1940s.
  4. Malaria :-
    Malaria has devastated parts of Africa, although it is curable and preventable, where the illness causes 20% of all childhood deaths, citing the World Health Organization. A parasite carried by blood-sucking mosquitoes causes the disease, which is initially characterized by chills, fever and flu-like symptoms before progressing to more serious complications.
  5. Influenza :-
    According to the World Health Organization, Flu, a seasonal respiratory infection is responsible for about 3 million to 5 million cases of severe illness and about 2,50,000 to 5,00,000 deaths per year across the globe. Some influenza viruses can cross species boundaries, as the recent swine flu and bird flu concerns showed.
  6. Tuberculosis :-
    Potentially fatal TB or Tuberculosis is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis which usually causes the signature bloody coughs and attacks the lungs. Up to one-third of the world’s population currently harbors the bacterium without exhibiting symptoms, and it does not always make those it infects sick. Additionally, 5% to 10% of those with TB infection (but not HIV) will get sick or spread an infection at some point in their lifespan.
  7. HIV/AIDS :-
    HIV is a relatively new disease, in contrast to many of the worst offenders on this list, which have a lengthy history with humans. It was discovered in 1981 that specific immune system cells are decimated by HIV. HIV makes its victims more vulnerable to a wide range of opportunistic illnesses by weakening a portion of the immune system.
  8. Cholera :-
    Acute diarrhea from cholera can be dangerous if not treated in a matter of hours. People contract the disease by consuming foods or beverages that carry the Vibrio cholerae bacterium. Through infected feces, the bacteria frequently contaminate food and water. Since it can take 12 hours to 5 days to show symptoms, People’s excrement can unintentionally transmit the disease.
  9. Rabies :-
    The initial symptoms of rabies can be hard to detect in humans, as they mimic the flu including fever, discomfort and general weakness. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), when the disease progresses, patients may experience abnormal behavior, delirium, insomnia and hallucinations.
  10. Pneumonia :-
    Pneumonia may not be as terrifying as illnesses like rabies or smallpox, but it can still be fatal, especially for anyone under the age of 5 or over 65. Inflammation of the air sacs in one or both lungs is a symptom of the illness of pneumonia. The air sacs may swell with fluid or pus (purulent material), which can cause breathing difficulties, a fever, chills, and a cough that produces pus or phlegm. The disease can be caused by a virus, bacteria or a combination of both. According to Dr. Sheetu Singh, a person can get pneumonia from a parasite, fungal infection or reactions to certain medicines.
  11. Infectious Diarrhea :-
    The virus causes dehydration brought upon by severe vomiting and watery diarrhea. According to WHO, four Rotavirus vaccines are considered highly effective at preventing the disease. A potentially deadly diarrheal illness, rotavirus is the most frequent cause of viral gastroenteritis (inflammation of the stomach and intestines).
  12. Ebola :-
    A healthy individual can get the Ebola virus by coming into contact with an infected person’s blood or secretions or by handling objects (such as clothing or bedding) that have been exposed to these fluids. The virus is passed from one person to another by bodily fluids. The virus spreads very rapidly, overcoming the body’s immune response and causing muscle pain, fever, weakness, headaches, diarrhea, abdominal pain and vomiting.
  13. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease :-
    Humans can get VCJD when they eat beef from cows with Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), a disease similar to VCJD that occurs in cattle. About 225 cases of vCJD were recorded in the UK and numerous other nations between 1996 and March 2011. According to WHO, individuals infected with VCJD tend to be younger than those infected with CJD.
  14. Marburg :-
    The filamentous forms of the viral particles are the defining hallmark of the Filovirus family of viruses, which includes the Marburg virus. The Marburg virus disease (MVD), is spread from one person to another through bodily fluids much like Ebola. The Marburg virus can infect monkeys just like it does human beings.
  15. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) :-
    The Middle East respiratory syndrome, or MERS, a viral respiratory disease that was initially discovered in 2012 in Saudi Arabia, turns out to be another lethal disease that is spread by bats, in addition to diseases like Ebola and Marburg. According to the WHO, MERs originated in bats, its major reservoir in the Middle East is likely dromedary camels.
  16. Dengue :-
    According to the WHO and the CDC, mosquito-borne viruses of which dengue is one of many kill an estimated 50,000 people worldwide every year. Dengue is a disease that can be caused by one of four related viruses such as DENV 1, DENV 2, DENV 3 and DENV 4. Sometimes the virus causes severe dengue or dengue hemorrhagic fever, a potentially fatal consequence with symptoms including fever, stomach pain, vomiting, blood and problems breathing.
  17. Yellow Fever :-
    Similar to dengue, yellow fever is a flavivirus and is transmitted from one person to another by mosquitoes. Jaundice or a yellowing of the skin and eyes, is a sign of the illness that is observed by a tiny number of those who are affected. According to the WHO, half of the patients who enter the toxic phase of yellow fever die within 7 to 10 days.
  18. Hantaviruses :-
    Hantaviruses are spread to humans by rodents, particularly from rats and mice. People who come into contact with these animal’s bodily secretions directly or who breathe in virus-carrying aerosolized particles from those secretions may contract a hantavirus. Fever, vomiting, and dizziness are among the first signs of this illness, which is similar to HPS in that it can also result in kidney failure and bleeding.
  19. Anthrax :-
    Anthrax is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus Anthracis, It inhabits soil and typically infects domestic and wild animals, including goats, cattle, and sheep. The disease typically infects people when they come into contact with infected animals or animal products.
  20. MRSA “Superbug” :-
    Shortened form of methicillin-resistant The staph bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, also known as MRSA, is capable of inflicting potentially fatal skin and bloodstream infections and is resistant to the majority of antibiotics used to treat these infections.
  21. Pertussis :-
    The respiratory tract infection pertussis, widely known as whooping cough, is brought on by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Pertussis is dangerous for babies, who can experience apnea or pauses in breathing. 87% of people who died from whooping cough between 2000 and 2012 were babies less than 3 months old.
  22. Tetanus :-
    Tetanus, an infection brought on by the bacteria Clostridium tetani, can be prevented by receiving the Tdap vaccine, which protects against pertussis. Tetanus-causing bacteria exist on the intestines of humans and animals as well as in dirt or soil (as well as objects left lying around in the dirt, like rusty nails) which they enter through the skin.
  23. Meningitis :-
    Meningitis is the medical term for inflammation of the membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord, or meninges. Fungi, viruses, and bacteria are just a few of the possible causes of this contagious illness. Some people get meningitis after having brain surgery, suffering a head injury or having certain kinds of cancer.
  24. Syphilis :-
    The sexually transmitted disease syphilis is relatively treatable, but if left untreated it can have devastating side effects. An individual’s genitalia or anus may develop sores in the early stages of the illness. Many people just ignore these sores or mistake them for ingrown hairs or blemishes as they are often small, painless and they heal on their own. The second phase of the disease is more noticeable and usually begins with a rash on one more part of the body.
  25. SARS :-
    The virus responsible for the pandemics in 2002 and 2003 that killed more than 750 people globally is known as SARS. SARS is spread to people by bats much like the Marburg virus, Ebola viruses and MERS. According to the National Institutes of Health, the SARS virus likely originated in horseshoe bats in China.
  26. Leprosy :-
    Leprosy is an infectious, chronic illness brought on by the Mycobacterium leprae bacteria. Leprosy, often known as Hansen’s illness after the Norwegian physician who discovered the causative microbe, has an impact on the eyes, upper respiratory system, peripheral nerves and skin.
  27. Measles :-
    Measles, commonly known as rubeola, is one of the most contagious viral diseases that results in a recognizable red skin rash. There are additional signs of this viral illness that resemble cold symptoms.
  28. Zika :-
    The Zika virus is a flavivirus spread by mosquitoes of the Aedes genus and was first discovered in Africa in 1947. For the majority of adults, Zika virus sickness is not extremely harmful, but it can have serious consequences for pregnancy and babies. Those who do get sick could have conjunctivitis (pink eye), rash, fever and joint discomfort, but these symptoms are often minor and only last a few days.


Infectious diseases are illnesses brought on by pathogens, which are dangerous substances that enter your body. The most common causes are bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Infectious diseases usually spread through contaminated food or water, from person to person and through bug bites. Some infectious diseases are very serious and some are minor. Infectious diseases are illnesses brought on by pathogens—dangerous organisms—that enter your body from the outside. Pathogens that cause infectious diseases are bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. If you need advice or care for infectious diseases from an expert, contact Dr Sheetu Singh a distinguished infectious diseases specialist renowned for her extensive experience and knowledge in the field. She has experience in identifying and treating a variety of infectious diseases and is committed to giving her patients compassionate care and state-of-the-art treatments. 

What is the Difference Between Infectious Diseases and Noninfectious Diseases?

Viruses and bacteria are two examples of dangerous creatures that enter your body from the outside and cause infectious diseases. Non-infectious diseases are not brought on by external organisms, but rather by genetics, anatomical variations, aging and your environment. Diseases that are not contagious cannot be acquired from other people, by an insect bite, or through food. Measles, flu, HIV, strep throat, COVID-19 and salmonella are all examples of infectious diseases. Diabetes, Cancer and congestive heart failure are all examples of noninfectious diseases. 

What are the Types of Infectious Diseases? 

Infectious diseases can be bacterial, viral, parasitic or fungal infectious. The rare class of infectious diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) affects people. 

  • Viral infectious: Viruses are a piece of information inside of a protective shell (Capsid). Viruses are incapable of self-replication as they are considerably smaller than your cells. They enter your cells and use the equipment there to duplicate themselves.
  • Bacterial infections: Bacteria are single-celled organisms whose genetic code is encoded on a tiny piece of DNA. Bacteria can be found everywhere, including on our skin and inside our bodies. While many bacteria are harmless or even helpful, certain bacteria produce toxins that can make you ill.
  • Fungal infectious: Like bacteria, there are several fungi. They live in and on your body. When your fungi get lush or when harmful fungi get into your body through your nose, mouth or a cut in your skin, you might get sick. 
  • Parasitic infections: When living and reproducing, parasites rely on the bodies of other creatures. Some single-celled creatures (protozoa) and worms (helminths) are considered to be parasites.
  • Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: TSEs are brought on by prions, which are malfunctioning proteins that induce other proteins in your body, typically those in your brain, to malfunction as well. 

What are the Common Infectious Diseases?

Worldwide, infectious diseases are relatively prevalent, but some are more widespread than others. For instance 1 out of every 5 Americans contract the influenza virus each year, while less than 300 persons are found to have prion illnesses. Some of the most common infectious diseases are listed below:-

1. Common infectious diseases caused by viruses

  • Common cold
  • The flu
  • Covid-19
  • Stomach flu (Gastroenteritis)
  • Hepatitis
  • Respiratory syncytial virus

 2. Common infectious diseases caused by bacteria

  • Strep throat
  • Salmonella
  • Whooping cough
  • Tuberculosis
  • Urinary tract infectious (UTI)
  • Clostridioides difficile (C.diff)

3. Common infectious diseases caused by fungi

  • Ringworm
  • Vaginal candidiasis (vaginal yeast infection)
  • Thrush
  • Fungal nail infections

4. Common infectious diseases caused by Parasites

  • Giardiasis
  • Hookworms
  • Toxoplasmosis
  • Pinworms

What Causes Infectious Diseases?

Several external substances that enter your body can cause infectious infections. These include:

  • Viruses
  • Bacteria
  • Fungi
  • Parasites
  • Prions 

How are Infectious Diseases Treated?

The infection’s cause will determine how it is treated. Sometimes, rather than prescribing medication, your doctor will advise you to keep an eye on your symptoms. 

  • Bacterial infections can be treated with Antibiotics. The appropriate antibiotic depends on the type of bacteria that caused the infection. 
  • Most viral infections can be treated with over-the-counter medications to manage your symptoms until you feel better. If you have the flu, your healthcare provider may prescribe oseltamivir phosphate in some cases. Antiretroviral therapy is a particular medication used to treat certain viral illnesses like HIV. 
  • Fungal infections can be treated with antifungal medications. You can apply them topically to the fungus where it is on your skin with clotrimazole or take them orally with fluconazole.
  • Antiparasitic medications such as metronidazole can be used to treat parasites.
  • There are no treatments for prion diseases. 

Can Infectious Diseases be Prevented?

There are several easy ways to lower your chance of contracting infectious diseases and some infections can even be completely avoided. There is usually no one method that is 100% successful at preventing sickness, even while each of these helps to lower your risk of contracting and spreading infectious diseases. 

1. Vaccines 

Vaccines lower your risk of contracting an infectious disease by training your immune system to identify and combat infections from dangerous pathogens. While people do still get sick with a disease after getting vaccinated for it, The majority of the time, your symptoms are not as bad as they would have been without the vaccination. 

A shot or series of injections is typically administered (or less frequently a nasal spray) vaccines are available for many common infectious diseases, including:

  • Chickenpox
  • Covid-19
  • Hepatitis A
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV)
  • Influenza
  • Malaria
  • Polio 
  • Rabies
  • Tuberculosis

2. Safe food handling 

Healthy food-handling practices aid in the prevention of some infectious diseases. 

  • Wash your hands thoroughly with water and soap before and after during food preparation
  • Peeling or thoroughly washing all fruits and veggies
  • Before thawing, keep meats frozen at 0°F (-180°C)
  • Before consuming, meats should be cooked to a safe temperature
  • Wash food preparation utensils and surfaces with water and soap after use
  • Don’t eat undercooked or uncooked seafood
  • Dont drink unpasteurized milk
  • Dont eat untreated water

Other strategies for preventing infectious illness

You can lessen your chance of contracting or transmitting an infectious disease with a few regular behaviors in addition to vaccinations and appropriate food handling practices. 

  • Wash your hands with water and soap. Thorough hand-washing is particularly important before using the bathroom, preparing a meal or eating, after working with dirt or after coming into contact with feces, whether animal or human. 
  • Cover your mouth and nose when you cough or sneeze.
  • Keep your house and office clean by disinfecting commonly touched surfaces.
  • Use protection during any kind of intimacy.
  • Avoid drinking from or swimming in potentially contaminated water.
  • To diminish the risk of mosquito bites or ticks, Use tick and mosquito repellant, cover as much exposed skin as you can with clothing and check yourself for ticks after being in wooded or long grassy areas. 

Booking an appointment with Dr. Sheetu Singh for an infectious disease consultation is a cautious step toward addressing your health concerns. She is a well-known expert in viral illnesses and has a plethora of knowledge and skills in identifying and managing a variety of infectious diseases. To set up an appointment with Dr. Singh, all you need to do is get in touch with her clinic, and the accommodating staff will guide you in finding a time that suits your schedule.


A 34-year-old female was presented with progressive dyspnea for one month. This was accompanied by short breath which lasted for the same period of a month. She has a history of unknown poisoning, for which she was put on a ventilator, following which she had a tracheostomy in April 2023. Shortness of breath is one of the major symptoms of this condition, as the disease becomes progressively chronic, it lasts longer than one month.

Post-intubation tracheal stenosis is the narrowing of the trachea for which tracheostomy is considered when all scopes are ruled out, also considering every complication which can arise post-surgery. 

Symptoms for this condition included the following: –

  1. a) shortness of breath that worsens gradually
  2. b) stridor i.e., respiratory sounds which resembled wheezing.

This 34-year-old female was taken for dilation of their air tubes using techniques such as bronchoscopy because of the following reasons:

  1. a) CT scan of the neck and chest revealed the complexity of tracheal stricture. This reduced or narrowed the passage of air such as in the trachea.
  2. b) Major reason for considering such procedures was the presence of 2 strictures one over the other, revealed in flexible bronchoscopy. Such conditions call for procedures like these.

Diagnosis of tracheal stenosis: –

The team of doctors and experts carried out a special screening of the lady to find out the medical history of the patient as she informed, them she had a history of unknown poisoning. 

 The tests included the following diagnostic measures: 

 a) LFT

 b) CT scan

 c) Chest X-ray 

Plan of surgery: –

Dr. Sheetu and the team wanted to perform CTVS surgery which is supposedly an ideal treatment for such conditions, but the patient refused for it in cold. Cardiothoracic and Vascular surgeries are surgeries of the heart, lungs, chest, oesophagus, and major vessels of our body which are affected by certain conditions that lead to abnormal functioning causing difficulties.

Due to lack of consent, another was brought forth as a replacement for surgery which is an ideal replacement for invasive techniques.

The plan included the widening of the tracheal tube using stents that dilated the airway causing troubled breathing.

The team of experts that included pulmonologists, scanning experts, and anaesthesiologists were together performing the entire process to aid relief to the lady.

Dr. Sheetu who is a well-known pulmonologist and chest expert with expertise in procedures such as bronchoscopy, helped her patient to get rid of troubled breathing patterns. She is a renowned health expert in her field with hands-on experience in a lot of surgeries relieving patients with histories of respiratory ailments. With a proper and precise diagnosis, followed by a well-structured treatment plan, her patients are handled well with required and effective treatment plans.

What was done? 

For this condition of tracheal stenosis, i.e., narrowed tracheal tube affecting the normal flow of air, we went with a rigid bronchoscope to obtain a clear view of airways and lungs.

The procedure was performed in the presence of anaesthesiologists to relieve the patient from any sort of pain during the process, but safe enough to avoid complications.

This was followed by the removal of unwanted tissues using electrocauterization, which dilated the tracheal stricture. This was followed by the use of CRE balloons for dilating the airway endoscopically. The entire process is well-monitored through the tubes producing a clear view of the air passages.

The dilation procedure is then followed by a self-expansive metallic stent called an SEM stent. The placement of these stents requires control in endoscopic methodology and thus is to be performed by a specialist in the field of such surgeries.

The procedure performed with high precision and efficacy requires monitoring and rehabilitation but does not require them to be admitted to the ICUs.

The female patient was observed for a day and was sent home on the second day of the completion of the procedure. However, regular follow-ups are advised for observing the growth in improvement to such difficulty in breathing patterns.

Conclusion: –

With regards to such non-invasive techniques, it is a blessing to save lives and give extra breaths to the patients owing to their medical ailments that require our efforts for the betterment of their lives. 

Dr. Sheetu and the team of health experts brought her life back to normal by bringing the abnormal breathing conditions causing troubled respiratory patterns, back to normal. It is beyond our imaginations sometimes the ways we can find certain problems that appear a dead end. 


We examine the top 10 infectious diseases for 2023 in this post. Numerous various bacteria, ranging from a mild cold virus to pulmonary TB, can induce coughing and fever.

What is an infection?

An infection occurs when a microorganism- such as fungi, bacteria or virus enters a person’s body and causes harm. The immune system can frequently prevent these viruses from multiplying within the body. The microorganism relies on the host’s body to survive, procreate, and colonize. These infectious, quickly reproducing microscopic pathogens.

How can infections spread?

They can spread through a variety of channels, such as:-

  • Skin contact.
  • Transfer of body fluids
  • Contact with faces
  • Ingesting contaminated water or food
  • airborne particles or droplets being inhaled
  • Touching a surface that has been touched by a person who is infected with the disease.

So, here are 10 significant prevalent infections in 2023.

1- Bronchitis: An inflamed bronchi is known as bronchitis. This produces sputum and a cough. They are typically brought on by a virus and will heal on their own. It is an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) that is most frequently seen. When treating bronchitis, Dr. Sheetu Singh takes a thorough, patient-centered approach. She emphasizes on giving each bronchitis patient individualized care using her broad medical knowledge and sympathetic personality. Your immune system creates swelling and mucus buildup in your airways when they are stimulated.

2- Common colds and influenza: Colds and influenza (flu) are both contagious respiratory infections, although they are brought on by various viruses. Different viruses, such as rhinoviruses, parainfluenza, and seasonal coronaviruses, can cause the common cold, however, only influenza viruses can cause the flu. Colds are usually milder than flu. Compared to those who have the flu, cold sufferers are more likely to have a runny or congested nose. In most cases, significant health issues like bacterial infections, pneumonia, or hospitalization are not brought on by colds. Flu can have serious associated complications.

3- Conjunctivitis: Conjunctivitis, also referred to as “pink (or red) eye,” is an inflammation of the eye and eyelid lining. The eye whites seem pink and could be discharged with something sticky. There are three main kinds of causes for conjunctivitis:-

  • Infective conjunctivitis- infection caused by a virus or bacteria. This illness may spread quickly. 
  • Allergic conjunctivitis: An allergic response to something such as pollen or dust mites.
  • Irritant conjunctivitis- Objects that can irritate the conjunctiva come into touch with the eye, such as stray eyelashes or chlorinated water, or shampoo.

4- COVID-19: The SARS-cov-2 virus is the infectious agent that causes coronavirus illness. Most virus-infected people will develop a mild to severe respiratory illness, but they will recover without the need for special treatment. Serious illness is more likely to affect the elderly and those with underlying medical illnesses including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or persistent respiratory issues. Early symptoms of COVID-19 may include a loss of smell or taste. Other symptoms may include:-

  • Muscle aches
  • Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
  • Sore  throat
  • Runny nose
  • Headache
  • Rash
  • Chest pain

5- Gastroenteritis: Gastroenteritis is a very common condition that causes vomiting and diarrhea. It is usually caused by a viral tummy bug or bacteria that can be related to food. It affects people of all ages but is simply common in young children. A virus known as rotavirus is responsible for the majority of illnesses in children. An intestinal infection known as viral gastroenteritis has symptoms such as watery diarrhea, stomach cramps, nausea, and occasionally fever. 

6- HIV/AIDS: The immune system of the body is attacked by the human immunodeficiency virus. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome may result from untreated HIV. There is currently no effective treatment available. When someone contracts HIV, they are permanently infected and can be controlled with proper medical care. HIV is caused by a virus. It may also spread from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, and breastfeeding. It can also spread through sexual contact, drug use or sharing of needles during illicit injections and contact with infected blood.

7- Malaria: Malaria is caused by plasmodium parasites. Humans are the only significant repository for four Plasmodium species—Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium Ovale, and Plasmodium Malariae—all of which cause disease in people. It can manifest in a variety of forms, from a minor chronic sickness to an acute illness that poses a serious threat to life. The majority of malaria deaths are caused by one or more major complications like breathing problems, cerebral malaria, anemia, organ failure or low blood sugar.

8- Pneumonia: Pneumonia is an infection of one or both of the lungs caused by viruses, bacteria or fungi. It is a dangerous infection when bacteria and other liquids fill the air sacs. It can be identified if there are typical symptoms linked with new chest X-ray shadowing. Signs and symptoms of pneumonia may include cough, fatigue, fever, sweating, nausea, vomiting chest pain or shortness of breath. There are two main types:-

  1. One or more lung chambers can become infected with lobar pneumonia.
  2. One or more lung chambers can become infected with lobar pneumonia.

9- Sore throat: Sore throat is usually caused by viruses like flu, cold or COVID-19. They may occasionally be brought on by bacteria. Most people recover without any kind of treatment. A sore throat can also be caused by:-

  • Pharyngitis
  • Laryngitis
  • Tonsillitis
  • Glandular fever

10- Tuberculosis (TB): Tuberculosis is a highly infectious bacterial disease that mostly affects the lungs. It can affect any part of the body including the nervous system, glands and bones. TB can spread when a person with sneezes, illness coughs or sings. This may release microscopic droplets containing the germs into the atmosphere. There are numerous symptoms associated with active TB, the majority of which are respiratory. Dr. Virendra Singh treats tuberculosis with a combination of expertise, compassion and innovation. Dr. Virendra Singh represents excellence in tuberculosis treatment via his commitment to improving tuberculosis care and his sympathetic approach. The symptoms include:

  1. Cough
  2. Fever
  3. Unexplained fatigue
  4. Blood in sputum
  5. Night sweats
  6. Chest pain
  7. Appetite loss
  8. Weight loss


As the name implies, a pulmonologist is a doctor who specialises in diagnosing and treating breathing problems. Asthma, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,  sleep apnea, and many other respiratory illnesses are all within their scope of practice. They also offer preventative services, such as help quitting smoking and getting necessary vaccines. Pulmonologists frequently collaborate with other medical professionals to give their patients the best possible care.

If you’ve been looking for the greatest chest doctor in the area, your quest can end now that you’ve found Dr Sheetu Singh.

What does Dr Sheetu Singh do?

  • Chest physicians perform a wide range of duties, including but not limited to the following: –
  • Conduct physical examinations, order diagnostic tests, and evaluate results.
  • Prescribe medications and other treatments.
  • Monitor and manage patients’ progress.
  • Inform patients and their families about their illness and available treatments.
  • Give vaccinations and screen for potential health problems.
  • Perform routine medical procedures.

Dr Sheetu Singh is the perfect solution if you’re looking for a top-notch chest specialist in Jaipur. 

Dr Sheetu Singh treats the following medical issues:

  • Because asthma causes inflammation of the airways and a narrowing of the airways, it makes breathing difficult. If you have asthma, see Dr Sheetu Singh, the top chest doctor in Jaipur.
  • COPD is a lung condition characterised by persistent inflammation that makes it difficult to breathe out completely. Dr Sheetu Singh is the top chest specialist doctor in Jaipur, and he can help you with your Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
  • Cystic fibrosis is a hereditary condition in which thick mucus builds up in the lungs, making breathing difficult. Choose Dr Sheetu Singh if you need the best pulmonologist to treat Interstitial Lung Disease.
  • Emphysema is a chronic lung illness that causes the lungs’ alveoli (air sacs) to die. If you have Emphysema and have looked into finding the best chest specialist, Dr Sheetu Singh is your best option.
  • A group of lung diseases known together as interstitial lung disease are distinguished by injury to the lung’s interstitium and the space around the alveoli (the air sacs). Choose Dr Sheetu Singh if you need the best pulmonologist to treat Interstitial Lung Disease.
  • Lung cancer, which develops from aberrant cell development in the lungs (often in the cells lining the air passageways), is one form of the deadly disease. Dr Sheetu Singh is the greatest chest specialist in the area and can help you with your lung cancer.
  • When the upper airway collapses during sleep, a condition known as obstructive sleep apnea occurs. Dr. Sheetu Singh is the best doctor for chest treatment in Jaipur, therefore if you have obstructive sleep apnea, you should go visit him.
  • Pulmonary hypertension, characterised by increased pressure within the pulmonary arteries, can cause shortness of breath, chest pain, and other symptoms. If you’re suffering from pulmonary hypertension, Dr Sheetu Singh is your best option for care.
  • Tuberculosis is a contagious disease that predominantly affects the lungs but can manifest itself in other parts of the body as well. Constant coughing, chest pain, fever, night sweats, and decreased appetite are all symptoms. Dr Sheetu Singh, a top chest specialist, is available and ready to treat you for Tuberculosis.
  • Bronchiectasis, an abnormal widening of the airways that causes chronic lung disease, infection, and trouble breathing. Visit Dr Sheetu Singh, the top pulmonary specialist in Jaipur, for care for your Bronchiectasis.
  • Bronchitis, a condition characterised by a persistent cough brought on by the irritation, swelling, and mucus buildup of the trachea and bronchi (airways in the lungs). If you’re looking for the top Bronchitis and chest pain specialist in Jaipur, go no further than Dr Sheetu Singh.
  • Pneumonia, an illness that makes your lung air sacs swell and fill with pus. If you have pneumonia, see Dr Sheetu Singh, the top chest doctor in Jaipur. 

When should you see Dr Sheetu Singh?

Suppose you have any of the following symptoms, including chest pain or discomfort, difficulty breathing, a persistent cough, fever, a hoarse voice, a wheezing sound coming from your chest, an ongoing chest infection, chest tightness, chest congestion, or a persistent wheezing sound. In that case, you should see Dr Sheetu Singh.

Dr Sheetu Singh is the top choice in the area if you need a specialist for your chest.

 When you see Dr Sheetu Singh, what can you anticipate?

You’ll get: –

  • X-rays, CT scans, or pulmonary function tests.
  • A discussion of your symptoms.
  • A review of your medical history.
  • A prognosis and recommended course of therapy.
  • Recommendations for positive behavioural changes to enhance health.

If you need help with your lungs, why should you go to Dr Sheetu Singh?

Dr Sheetu Singh is a leading expert in diagnosing and treating lung illnesses. She guarantees the patient will receive thorough, sympathetic care. She is a pioneer in treating difficult diseases, and she handles some of the most serious and potentially fatal cases in the field of pulmonology.


More than 300 million people throughout the world suffer from asthma, thus the Global Initiative for Asthma established World Asthma Day to bring attention to the condition and encourage better asthma treatment in countries around the world.  People all across the world celebrate on the first Tuesday of May annually. Asthma Day was first celebrated globally on May 5, 1998. Many groups and individuals worldwide hold events and do acts of service in honor of this day. This page will provide comprehensive information about World Asthma Day 2024, including its origins, significance, and goals.

What Causes Asthma and How to Stop It

Breathlessness, chest tightness, wheezing, and chest tightness are all symptoms of asthma, a lung illness that produces recurring episodes. A persistent cough also worsens in the morning and at night. There is currently no known cure or explanation for the condition. There are, however, methods available for keeping the situation under control.


In certain circumstances, asthma is produced by a combination of genetic predisposition and inhalation of environmental chemicals that are not completely understood. Asthma can be triggered by various environmental and occupational factors, including but not limited to house dust, mites in beds, carpets, and stuffed furniture; pollen and moulds; pollution and pet dander;  tobacco smoke; chemical irritants in the workplace; etc.


As explained by Dr Sheetu Singh, clinical history and breathing tests are useful in diagnosing asthma. Spirometry, a test of lung function, is useful in the diagnosis of asthma. However, most people with asthma don’t know it, and many cases go undiagnosed.


Dr Sheetu Singh can help you manage your asthma symptoms, but unfortunately, there is no cure. Asthma can be controlled with inhalers and other medications now on the market. In addition, regular exercise and other forms of physical activity can help alleviate asthma symptoms.

The theme for World Asthma Day 2023

Since most cases of asthma and deaths from the disease occur in developing nations. In 2023, “Asthma Care for All” will be the focus of World Asthma Day, as chosen by GINA, the Global Initiative for Asthma.

In 2022, “Closing Gaps in Asthma Care” will be the topic of World Asthma Day.

“Enough Asthma Deaths” was the topic for World Asthma Day in 2020. 

This year’s World Asthma Day was centred on the slogan “STOP for Asthma.” This motif stands for assessing symptoms, administering tests, observing results, making assessments, and modifying treatment. Asthma checkup camps are organised worldwide by the Global Initiative for Health (GINA). The National Institutes of Health (NIH) also hosts medical clinics where asthmatics can get free exams and medication.

The History of World Asthma Day

Over 35 countries marked World Asthma Day in 1998, coinciding with the first World Asthma Meeting in Barcelona, Spain. Asthma Awareness Day has rapidly grown to become the largest such event globally. The program aims to provide information to help people with asthma and other allergic disorders better manage their symptoms.

How do people commemorate World Asthma Day?

Asthma Awareness Day 2018 will occur on May 3, designated as Asthma Awareness Month. NAEPP is a group effort to raise awareness and get people to take action on asthma. People with Asthma are urged to document their treatment goals, including drug and location preferences, in an Asthma Action Plan (AAP).

By bringing together physicians, patients, and everyone involved in caring for those with asthma, NAEPP has taken a major step towards regaining disease control.

About GINA on World Asthma Day

The Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) plans and executes World Asthma Day annually. GINA selects a new topic for the event every year.

Asthma Day is a global event, and GINA is responsible for coordinating all of the production and delivery of event materials and resources worldwide and running the World Asthma Day Internet Headquarters.

Some Activities that are Performed

  • To kick off the finest asthma treatment possible, free checkup camps are organised.
  • New asthma clinics and pharmacies are set up in those places that need them.
  • Several national Asthma Societies have commemorated World Asthma Day.
  • Messages like “fighting asthma with every breath” are shown on television and in the press to raise public awareness.
  • Asthma disease, its symptoms, precautions, and prevention are the subject of classes offered at several schools.
  • Posters and banners raising awareness of asthma are widely disseminated.

If you have Asthma, you should see Dr Sheetu Singh. Dr Sheetu Singh is an internationally recognised interstitial lung disease and pulmonary intervention expert. She garnered valuable expertise as a student at SMS Medical College and a visiting fellow at the Cleveland Clinic in the United States. She has worked with patients with asthma, COPD, TB, and sleep apnea as an associate professor at SMS Medical College. She has published extensively on her research at both the national and international levels.


On June 21, the globe celebrates International Yoga Day to acknowledge the divine force of yoga that has been felt across humanity. Millions of individuals practice yoga every day as an effective form of exercise. Yoga is used by people to achieve a holy union of the mind, body, and soul. Over 5,000 years ago, yoga first appeared in India. As a result, it is a traditional kind of physical activity and meditation that was used to advance toward enlightenment. The theme of International Yoga Day 2023 is ‘yoga for humanity’. Yoga has provided the world with spiritual knowledge through meditation and many postures, in addition to being an important type of exercise to stay active every day. For thousands of years, yoga has been the most effective approach to uniting the mind, body, and spirit.

Finding inner peace and establishing a state of well-being has become more crucial than ever in today’s fast-paced world where stress and anxiety have become normal.  It is a holistic approach to wellness, offering physical, mental, and spiritual benefits. Dr. Sheetu Singh, a seasoned practitioner, and specialist of yoga, has dedicated her life to exploring and sharing the profound impact of this transformative practice. Dr. Sheetu Singh has in-depth knowledge of yoga and how she motivates people to start their life-changing adventures.

Dr. Sheetu Singh explains that millions of individuals suffer from the chronic respiratory disease Asthma, which makes it difficult to breathe and lowers the overall quality of life. While asthma management requires both medication and surgical treatments, alternative therapies like yoga have shown encouraging outcomes in reducing symptoms and enhancing lung function. She suggests that Yoga can be a beneficial tool for individuals living with Asthma.

  • Enhancing lung capacity:-

    Asthmatics can increase their lung capacity by practicing yoga, which contains particular breathing methods known as pranayama. Exercises that include deep breathing, such as diaphragmatic breathing, and alternate nostril breathing, build up the respiratory system’s capacity for oxygen absorption. People with asthma can enjoy an increase in lung capacity and better breathing control by regularly engaging in pranayama.

  • Relaxation and stress reduction:-

    Stress and anxiety can worsen asthma attacks and cause symptoms to get worse. Yoga offers people with asthma an effective method to treat their illness because of its emphasis on relaxation and stress reduction. Gentle yoga positions, along with focused breathing and mindfulness exercises, encourage relaxation and trigger the relaxation response in the body.

  • Improved breathing techniques:-

    People who have asthma frequently develop ineffective breathing patterns, which include shallow breaths and holding their breath. Yoga teaches effective breathing methods that can aid in breaking these patterns and encouraging better breathing practices. By practicing yoga, individuals learn to engage the lungs fully, allowing for deeper and more efficient breaths. This can lead to reduced breathlessness, better oxygenation, and improved overall lung function.

  • Strengthening respiratory muscles:-

    Yoga asanas that target the chest, shoulders, and back, in particular, can assist strengthen the respiratory muscles. Pose variations including Bhujangasana (Cobra Pose), Dhanurasana (Bow Pose), and Matsyasana (Fish Pose) lengthen and open the chest, increase lung capacity, and improve chest and rib cage flexibility. People with asthma may breathe better and have more control over their symptoms as their respiratory muscles get stronger and more flexible.

  • Enhanced mind-body awareness:-

    Yoga encourages a strong mental-physical bond that helps people become more aware of their physical and emotional states. People with Asthma can learn to pay more attention to their lungs signals and the early signs of Asthma attacks by engaging in mindfulness techniques.

International Yoga Day: Bringing the World of Yoga into our Lives

The ancient art of yoga originated in the culturally varied country of India. In recent years, yoga has grown in popularity in the West, with several Hollywood celebrities taking it up. Many people are unaware of yoga’s wonderful psychological benefits, even though it is well-established that yoga improves physical health and flexibility. Since 2015, International Yoga Day has been celebrated annually every 21st June, Many individuals practice yoga in large groups all around the world. The date was selected to fall on the Summer Solstice, which is the longest day of the year in the Northern Hemisphere on this day.

PM Modi has shared a few videos of himself performing yoga poses and discussing the advantages of those poses. Everyone has begun with the major preparations, including educational institutions like CBSE and NCERT as well as the formation of a Common Yoga Protocol. One of India’s holiest towns, Rishikesh, is also home to numerous yoga centers and ashrams that will undoubtedly make you fall in love with yoga. Rishikesh is sometimes referred to as the “Yoga Capital of India,” and nothing compares to the experience of practicing yoga there, in a calm, pollution-free environment. On International Yoga Day, thousands of people gather and participate in mass yoga practices.

Reasons to Practice Yoga Daily 

There are numerous reasons to practice yoga on this international yoga day and beyond as mentioned below:-

  • One of the first main reasons to practice yoga for wellness and health
  • To use it as a type of exercise to stay physically fit.
  • Yoga improves flexibility, and balance, and enhances strength.
  • It helps in relieving back pain.
  • Yoga helps with arthritic symptoms.
  • It is beneficial for heart health.
  • Yoga helps the body relax and enhances sleep.
  • It also improves mood and energy.
  • Yoga can be practiced to manage stress.
  • Yoga enables you to take care of yourself.
  • Numerous scientific advantages of yoga also exist.

Why is International Yoga Day Significant?

  • Yoga is inclusive since it can be practiced by people of all nationalities and religions.
  • Yoga gives you calmness and mental peace by relieving stress.
  • Regular yoga practice is beneficial to your health since it promotes weight loss and flexibility.

What are the Eight Limbs of Yoga?

  • Yama (restraint in our environment).
  • Niyama (inward and positive duties towards ourselves).
  • Asana (physical posture).
  • Pranayama (breathing restraint or expansion).
  • Pratyahara (conscious withdrawal of the senses).
  • Dharana (concentration).
  • Shyana (meditation).
  • Samadhi (integration into a whole, bliss, and enlightenment).

Dr. Sheetu Singh, a nationally renowned pulmonologist, Director ILD & Pulmonary Rehab Clinic, is an expert in chest-related conditions. She got her training from SMS Medical College, Jaipur followed by a visit to Cleveland Clinic, USA.

Contact Info

Address: Mahavir Jaipuriya Rajasthan Hospital Milap Nagar, JLN Marg, Jaipur

Mobile: (+91)-8696666380

Email-Id: sheetusingh@yahoo.co.in

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