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27/Jan/2023

Haemophilus influenza: characteristics, culture, pathogenesis, treatment

Haemophilus influenza is a Gram-negative, Plumorphic coccobacillus, which causes a variety of infections and some serious infections, including meningitis, septicemia, pneumonia, epiglottis, conjunctivitis, cellulitis, or arthritis. The Types and Evaluation of Influenza species represents the main pathogen of this genus. Children and the elderly are the most susceptible to serious infections caused by these microorganisms. The former suffered mostly from meningitis and later from pneumonia.

Some strains are Haemophilus influenza they are bound and others are not. Capsules are typeable according to the type of carbohydrate in the capsule. The types described by A, B, C, D, E, and F are known as different types.

Types and Evaluation of Influenza

At the laboratory level, these can be isolated with polysaccharides using antisera aggregating antibodies.

Capsulated strains are pathogenic. Type B These are the most invasive and frequently isolated in the infectious process. Non-capsulated is considered habitual microbiota and although they may be contagious, they are not usually invasive and do not represent a greater risk.

They are difficult to distinguish at the laboratory level, as they require highly enriched media for optimal development, such as chocolate agar or lethal agar.

This is why these microorganisms fall into the group of bacteria that claim to be from a nutritional point of view, although some authors prefer to call them annoying microorganisms.

Disease (pathogenesis)

These are transmitted by microbial secretions, mainly respiratory problems (saliva and mucus) excreted by sick people or carriers of bacteria.

If the patient sneezes or coughs, the bacteria are excreted in the excreta. Bacteria are spread in the environment and are inhaled by sensitive individuals.

Haemophilus influenza is a pyogenic microorganism that causes it to produce purulent secretions.

Its main pathologies are meningitis, septicemia, pneumonia, epiglottitis, conjunctivitis, and otitis, among others. Here are given different types of disease –

SepticemiaWhen bacteria enter the bloodstream it is called bacteremia and is an important step in the spread of microorganisms to other organs or tissues. When the number of microorganisms in the blood multiplies, it is called septicemia, a condition that compromises the patient’s general condition.

Meningitis

Meningitis is a serious disease that causes neck, headaches, nausea, or changes in behavior and some cases leads to death. This infection is common in children.

Pneumonia

A previous respiratory tract infection, such as bronchitis or acute fibrillar tracheobronchitis, can cause this serious complication. The symptoms include a high fever, dyspnea, or productive cough with cauliflower chin. It can coexist with bacteremia. This involvement is more common in older adults.

Conjunctivitis

Conjunctivitis presents redness, burning, swelling of the eyelids, presence of purulent discharge, or sensitivity to light (photophobia).

Diagnosis

Culture is the best way to diagnose. Samples will depend on the infectious process.

If meningoencephalitis is suspected, a sample of cerebrospinal fluid should be taken by a lumbar puncture for cytochemical study and culture. In case of septicemia, blood samples will be taken to perform multiple blood cultures.

If the process is conjunctivitis, the secretion of this mucus will be taken. In the case of pneumonia, a specimen of sputum or bronchial lavage is cultured.

Detection can also be done using manual biochemical tests or by automated systems such as VTech2.

Treatment

Types and Evaluation of Influenza Haemophilus  It can be treated with beta-lactam like ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, amoxicillin / clavulanic acid, piperacillin/tazobactam. Third-generation cephalosporins, such as ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, and cefoperazone, are often used in severe infections.

It is important to note that ampicillin is no longer used because most isolated strains are currently resistant to this antibiotic, due to the production of beta-lactamase.

Macrolides and quinolones can be used.

However, the most advisable issue is to administer and treat antibiotics according to the sensitivity of the report.

Resistance

Type Haemophilus influenza E B after the introduction of the vaccine against it, this microbial cause has significantly reduced the incidence of meningitis.

So, capsular antigen type B (polydipsia-ribitol-phosphate) H. Influenza is included in the pentavalent vaccine which also fights against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and hepatitis B.

The vaccine is given in 3 or 4 doses. The 4-dose schedule is as follows:

The first dose is started at 2 months of age. Two more doses are then given every two months (at ages 4 and 6 months). Finally, the fourth dose is placed 6 or 9 months after the third. The last dose represents a boost.


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