A communicable disease spreads from one person or animal to another or from a surface to a person. They are caused by pathogens, which include bacteria and viruses. Colds and the flu are examples of infectious diseases. Communicable diseases can be transmitted through contact with insect bites, bodily fluids, water, foods, contaminated surfaces, or through the air. People sometimes refer to communicable diseases as ‘infectious’ or ‘transmissible’ diseases. Pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, cause communicable diseases.

Symptoms of Communicable Disease

Once a pathogen gets into a person’s body, it frequently starts to replicate. The person may then start to exhibit symptoms. Depending on the illness, symptoms can change. Some individuals won’t show any symptoms at all. They are yet capable of spreading the infection. Certain symptoms arise directly from the infection causing harm to the body’s cells. Others result from the immune system’s reaction to the illness. Some communicable diseases may be mild, and symptoms pass after a few days. Nonetheless, a few may be dangerous and even fatal. The degree of symptoms may differ based on an individual’s immune system and general health. 

Causes of Communicable Disease

After contracting the pathogen, an individual may become ill with a communicable disease. This could occur via:

  • Direct contact with a person carrying the pathogen.
  • receiving pathogen-laden particles in the air from someone else’s sneeze or cough.
  • Contact with bodily fluids containing pathogens.
  • Receiving a bite from an insect or an animal carrying the pathogen.
  • Consuming contaminated foods or water.

Types of Communicable Disease 

Infection is caused by four primary types of pathogens: bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoa. 

  • Viruses: Viruses are microscopic pathogens that carry genetic material. They don’t have the intricate structure of a cell, in contrast to other infections. They need to get into the cells of other living things to multiply. They enter the cell and replicate themselves using its equipment. 
  • Bacteria: Bacteria are microscopic, single-celled organisms. They are found inside the human body as well as in practically every other ecosystem on Earth. While many bacteria are harmless, some are necessary for the body’s operation. On the other hand, illnesses caused by bacteria can harm the body.
  • Fungi: Among the group of organisms known as fungi are molds, mushrooms, and yeasts. There are millions of distinct fungi with verified sources. Only about 300, though, are known to cause serious problems. Fungal infections can occur anywhere in the body. However, they commonly affect the mucus membranes and skin. 
  • Protozoa: Protozoa are tiny organisms that are usually made up of just one cell. Certain protozoa are parasitic, which means they feed on the nutrients of other organisms while existing on or inside of them. Numerous diseases can be caused by parasitic protozoa.

Common Communicable Disease 

Common bacterial, viral, protozoa and fungal diseases include:

  • Rhinoviruses: A class of viruses known as rhinoviruses is the most frequent cause of the common cold. A rhinovirus can be contracted by breathing in contaminated droplets from another person’s cough or sneeze. Similar to this, persons can spread rhinoviruses by touching their mouth, nose, or eyes after coming into contact with contaminated objects or surfaces. A cold may cause the following symptoms:
    • Sore throat.
    • A stuffy or runny nose.
    • Headache.
  • Coronaviruses: A broad class of viruses that impact the respiratory system is known as coronaviruses (Trusted Source). The SARS-CoV-2 virus belongs to this family. While some coronaviruses might cause more serious consequences, others can only cause symptoms similar to the typical cold and flu.
  • Influenza: The respiratory system is attacked by influenza viruses. Influenza viruses can be contracted in the same manner as rhinoviruses. Some potential symptoms include:
    • Stuffy or runny nose.
    • Fever or chills.
    • Cough.
    • Sore throat.
    • Muscle or body aches.
    • Headaches.
    • Fatigue. 
  • HIV: The host’s immune system is attacked by HIV. The person is now more susceptible to illnesses and infections. HIV can be transmitted to an individual by blood or other bodily fluids that contain the virus. The only way a person can be certain they have HIV is to have an HIV test. Even though there is no known cure for HIV, drugs can help manage the infection or render it undetectable. HIV can progress to AIDS in the absence of such treatment. The symptoms of HIV may develop gradually. They can include: 
    • Chills.
    • Fever.
    • Mouth sores.
    • Rash.
    • Sore throat.
    • Muscle aches.
    • Swollen lymph nodes.
    • Night sweats.
    • Fatigue.
  • Salmonella and Escherichia Coli: A non-typhoidal different species of bacteria can infect the digestive tract, including Salmonella and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Typhoid is also caused by Salmonella typhi, a different type of salmonella. They are usually spread by polluted water supplies, unwashed fruits and vegetables, undercooked meats and eggs, and other foods. Salmonella can also spread through contact with live animals, through person-to-person contact, and including chickens. Some symptoms of these infections include:
    • Diarrhea.
    • Abdominal cramps.
    • Fever.
    • Headache.
  • Tuberculosis: The bacterial infection known as tuberculosis (TB) mostly affects the lungs. A person who has tuberculosis (TB) can infect others by coughing or sneezing microscopic droplets, or “aerosols,” into their air. These are the symptoms that it could cause:
    • Loss of Appetite.
    • A cough continuing for more than 3 weeks.
    • Fever.
    • Chills,
    • Unintentional weight loss.
    • Night sweats.
  • Ringworm: A typical fungus that infects the skin is ringworm. A rash that resembles a ring is the hallmark sign of ringworm. It may be itchy, dry, or scaly. Ringworm can spread to other bodily areas if left untreated. People may contract ringworm through: 
    • intimate interaction with a ringworm sufferer.
    • Sharing bedding, towels, or other personal items with a person who has ringworm.
    • close connection with ringworm-affected animals, usually cats.
  • Athlete’s Foot: A common fungal illness that affects the skin on the feet is called athlete’s foot. It usually results in white spots between the toes that are painful or irritating. Direct contact with an infected person or surfaces contaminated by the fungus can result in the transmission of athlete’s foot to others. For instance, an individual might contract an athlete’s foot after walking barefoot in showers, locker rooms, or swimming pools.
  • Plasmodium: Malaria is a tropical disease caused by the protozoa of the Plasmodium genus. The main way that the parasite spreads is by mosquito bites (Trusted Source). Malaria can be life-threatening, without proper treatment. Vaccination programs are also effectively protecting people from malaria fatalities. Malaria causes symptoms such as: 
    • Vomiting.
    • Headaches.
    • Fever and chills.
    • Muscle pains.
    • Diarrhea.
  • Lyme Disease: Black-legged ticks can transmit the potentially deadly Lyme disease to humans. It is the most prevalent carrier-spread illness in the US according to Trusted Source. The majority of instances of Lyme disease are caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. However, the illness could also be brought on by the germs of Borrelia Mayonii. Lyme disease can spread to the heart, joints, and nervous system if a person does not treat it.  Symptoms of Lym disease include:
    • Fatigue.
    • Headache.
    • Skin rash.
    • Fever. 

How To Prevent Transmission 

The following actions can help people lower their risk of coming into contact with or spreading disease-causing pathogens:

  • Wash their hands regularly and thoroughly.
  • cleaning surfaces in your house frequently, especially the areas around doors and food.
  • Disinfecting personal items such as phones.
  • Cooking eggs, meats, and other foods thoroughly.
  • Practicing good hygiene when handling and preparing food.
  • Avoid touching wild animals.
  • Avoid eating spoiled food.
  • when visiting places where malaria is a danger, using antimalarial drugs.
  • Receiving available vaccinations.
  • Check for ticks and other parasites. 

Treatment For Communicable Diseases 

Certain contagious illnesses simply produce minor symptoms that go away on their own. Others might result in serious side effects or even death. Patients require different treatments depending on the disease process and clinical presentation. Consulting with Dr. Sheetu Singh for a communicable disease is a prudent and reassuring step toward optimal health management.  Her patient-centered and empathetic approach guarantees that each client receives customized care based on their particular situation.  During the consultation, Dr. Sheetu Singh conducts a thorough assessment, considering both medical history and current symptoms, to formulate an accurate diagnosis. 

  • Viral Infections: Vaccines are one of the best ways to avoid certain viral illnesses. There are numerous varieties of vaccinations. A version of the virus is administered to a recipient of a vaccination. In response, the immune system creates antibodies that will eventually destroy an active strain of the virus. If a person has a virus, they may require Antiviral medications to keep the virus under control. 
  • Bacterial Infections: The severity of bacterial infections can vary from moderate to fatal. Antibiotics may be necessary for the treatment of a bacterial infection to help manage the infection. These medications can aid in the destruction of bacteria or inhibit their growth so that the immune system can fight them. A person should only ever take Antibiotics on medical recommendations. 
  • Fungal Infections: In rare instances, intravenous medicine may be necessary for treating a severe or persistent fungal infection, in addition to prescribed antifungal drugs. Athlete’s foot and ringworm, for example, can be treated using over-the-counter topical ointments.

Dr. Sheetu Singh, a nationally renowned pulmonologist, Director ILD & Pulmonary Rehab Clinic, is an expert in chest-related conditions. She got her training from SMS Medical College, Jaipur followed by a visit to Cleveland Clinic, USA.

Contact Info

Address: Mahavir Jaipuriya Rajasthan Hospital Milap Nagar, JLN Marg, Jaipur

Mobile: (+91)-8696666380


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